Equations of State for the Calculation of Fluid-Phase Equilibria Y.S. Wei and R.J.Sadus, AIChE J., 46, 169-191, 2000 Kim, Yong-Soo Thermodynamics & Properties Lab. Korea University
Introduction • Advantages of using Equation of State(EOS) • Wide ranges of temperature and pressure • Application of mixtures of diverse components • Various phase equilibria without any conceptual difficulties • This work • An overview of recent progress in EOS • Simple empirical EOS • Theoretically-based EOS • Relationships between different EOS • Role of molecular simulation data
EOS for simple molecules • van der Waals EOS (vdW) (1873) • Hard-sphere (repulsive) + Attractive intermolecular interactions • A qualitative description of phase transitions • Inadequate to critical properties and phase equilibria • Requirement of modifications of attractive and repulsive terms
EOS for simple moleculesModification of Attractive term • Benedict-Webb-Rubbin EOS (1940) • Disadvantage • Requirement of plentiful, accurate PVT and VLE data for parmamter estimation • Difficulty of extension to mixtures
EOS for simple moleculesModification of Attractive term • Redlich-Kwong EOS (1949) • Significant improvement over the vdW EOS • The impetus for many further empirical EOS
EOS for simple moleculesModification of Attractive term • SRK (1972) • Prediction of phase behavior of mixtures in the critical region and improvement of accuracy of critical properties
EOS for simple moleculesModification of Attractive term • Peng-Robinson (1976) • Slight improvement of the predictions of liquid volumes • Superior to the VLE in hydrogen and nitrogen containing mixtures (Han et al., 1988)
EOS for simple moleculesModification of Attractive term • The advantages of SRK and PR EOSs • Easy representation of the relation among temperature, pressure, and phase compositions in multicomponent systems • Only requirement of the critical properties and acentric factor • Little computing time • Overestimation of saturated liquid volumes.
EOS for simple moleculesModification of Repulsive term • Reproducibility of complex phase transitions such as LLV equilibria.
EOS for simple moleculesModification of Repulsive term • Hard-sphere compressibility factors from different EOS with molecular simulation data
EOS for simple moleculesCombining modification of both attractive and repulsive terms • Carnahan and Starling (1972) • The prediction of hydrocarbon densities and supercritical phase equilibria. • Chen and Kreglewski (1977) • The substitution of attractive term with the power series fit of MC data by Alder et al. (1972) • This attractive term is the inspiration for further development.
EOS for simple moleculesCombining modification of both attractive and repulsive terms • Shah et al. (1994) • Requirement of 3 properties of fluids : Tc, Vc, and acentric factor • Quartic equation, but it behaves like cubic equation. • Lin et al. (1996) • Extension to polar fluids. • Need of dipole moment Repulsive Attractive
EOS for Chain MoleculesPerturbed hard chain theory • Prigogine (1957) • Rotational and vibrational motions are depend on density => EOS and configurational properties are affected.
EOS for Chain MoleculesPerturbed hard chain theory • Beret and Prausnitz (1975) • Development of PHCT EOS • More accurate expressions for repulsive and attractive partition functions • Meeting the ideal gas law at low densities • Deficiency in Prigogine’s theory
EOS for Chain MoleculesPerturbed hard chain theory • Equation of State • Parameters : • Sucessful in calculating the various properties of fluids and phase equilibria • A practical limitations as a result of the use of Carnahan-Starling free-volume term and the Alder power series • Simplifying the PHCT EOS
EOS for Chain MoleculesSimplified perturbed hard chain theory • Kim et al. (1986) • Parameters : • The SPHCT EOS retains the advantages of the PHCT EOS.
EOS for Chain MoleculesHard-sphere chain theory • Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) • The association site are replaced by covalent, chain-forming bonds. • Chapman et al. (1988) : Generalization of TPT • Zhs is Carnahan-Starling equation.
EOS for Associating FluidsStatistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) • Chapman et al. (1988, 1990)
EOS for Associating FluidsStatistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) • Huang and Radosz (1990)
EOS for Associating FluidsStatistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) • Development of variable SAFT model • Simplified SAFT : Fu and Sandler (1995) • Galindo et al. (1996) : The expression of Boublik for the hard-sphere contribution • LJ-SAFT (Banaszak et al., 1994), VR-SAFT (Gil-Villegas et al., 1997), and so on.
Comparing EOSInterrelationships between different EOS • New EOS • Modification of existing ones • Reuse of successful EOS to form a new EOS • The branches in next figure show different ways of representing intermolecular repulsion. • van der Waals, Carnahan-Starling, HCB, PHCT, and TPT • The precursor for the development of EOS • SRK in empirical EOS’s • PHCT and SAFT in theoretical EOS’s
Comparing EOSComparison with experiment • Experimental data • The ultimate test of the accuracy of an EOS • No absolute quantitative judgments about the relative merits of competing EOS • Why is an absolute quantitative judgments difficult? • EOS developers test their EOS against experimental data, but not offer an identical comparison with other EOS. • The accuracy of EOS is often dependent on highly optimized EOS parameters • EOS users adopt a favorite EOS with which they become expert in using.
Comparing EOSComparison with experiment • The true value in using a theoretical EOS • Their improved ability to predict phase equilibria rather than merely correlate data. • Correlation of experimental data with PR/SRK at low pressure => Failure of the prediction of phase equilibria at high pressure • Breakdown of vdW repulsion term => Using Carnahan-Starling or Guggenheim repulsion term • Ability of calculating full range of phase equilibria of mixtures. • Theoretical EOS’s, such as SAFT and PHCT are promising approaches.
Comparing EOSComparison with molecular simulation data • Molecular simulation • Provision of exact data to test the accuracy of theory • Discrepancies between theory and MC =>Failure of theory to represent the underlying model • Direct comparison of a theoretical model with experiment => No useful information • Direct comparison of a simulation-verified model with experiment =>To indicate the strength or weakness of theory • Example => Show figure • Carnahan-Starling and Guggenheim equation is accurate !
Comparing EOSComparison with molecular simulation data • Failure of accuracy in comparison of EOS with MC • Not merely due to the failure of theory to represent adequately the underlying model • Because of the limitations of theory to model the real molecules
Conclusion • To meet the challenge posed by large and complicated molecules, EOS are being developed with an improved theoretical basis. • These new EOS are playing an expanding role in the calculation of various phase equilibria. • Molecular simulation have an ongoing and crucial role in the improvement of the accuracy of EOS