By Gut, Dusty and Mo A deep exploration of the central issues in Othello?
Source material • Shakespeare’s Othello was based on GiraldiCinthio’sGliHecatommithi • The main plot was derived from Cinthio’s short story, but Shakespeare adapted it drastically. • GliHecatommithi major theme was that mixed-race marriages cannot work • Othello has more complex characterization and deals with many other issues.
Publication history The first printed copy of Othello came in 1622, called the First quarto. *It was printed from a scribal transcript by Shakespeare The First folio was printed one year later *Printed from a transcript by Ralph Crane The Second quarto was printed in 1630 The Second folio was printed in 1632
Contemporary performance reviews • For contemporary audiences, the question becomes whether or not white actors can or should play Othello?
Central issues in Othello • Race • Gender and sexuality • Class
Historical context of race • In the 1560’s some seamen actively participated in slave trade. • Queen Elizabeth in 1601 issued an edict expelling Africans from the country for taking jobs away. • During the Elizabethan era there was a blend of cultural experiences that hadn’t previously been experienced which led to a fear of Africans and other foreigners • Shakespeare was able to transform the fear into plays of great social significance. • In the late 16th century Africans function in three different ways to society • 1: Household servants • 2: Prostitutes • 3: Court entertainers
Historical context of race—defining racial terms • Moor—Originally: a native or inhabitant of ancient Mauretania, a region of North Africa corresponding to parts of present-day Morocco and Algeria. Later usually: a member of a Muslim people of mixed Berber and Arab descent inhabiting north-western Africa (now mainly present-day Mauritania), who in the 8th cent. Conquered Spain. In the Middle Ages, and as late as the 17th century, the Moors were widely supposed to be mostly black or very dark-skinned, although the existence of ‘white moors’ was recognized. • Black—Having an extremely dark skin; strictly applied to negroes and negritos, and other dark-skinned races; often, loosely, to non-European races, little darker than man Europeans. Definitions from the Oxford English Dictionary
More on the Moor • Etymologically, Moors were people native of Mauritania—a region in ancient Morocco. • Often pertained to people from Africa • Moors other times are referred to as Arabians, Turks, and Spaniards. • Moor also could signal religious affiliations, not just race and regional affiliations. • During Shakespeare's time, not coincidentally, Moors became very complex, not fitting one single mold but carrying signs of many cultural traditions.
Race as it pertains to Othello • What race should we suppose Othello to belong? • Shakespearian experts believed that Othello was Oriental as recently as 1941. • Elizabethans did not make careful distinctions between Moors and Negroes. • The term Moor was applied to Arabs, Berbers, Syrians and Negroes in Shakespeare’s time.
Race • Othello’s appearance is regularly and consistently described as though he’s black or of African descent. • Other passages do not describe his appearance, but they help show his racial identity: Barbantio accuses Othello of using magic, and Elizabethans associated Moors with witchcraft. • Iago calls Othello the devil, Barbary Horse and lascivious Moor • In Titus Andronicus, a Shakespeare play, Aaron is black and referred to as a Moor, • Elizabethan’s thought devils took the form of Moors and Negroes • Barbary Horses are from Northern Africa • Lascivious Moor: people born in hot countries
Racist attitudes toward Othello Characters in Othello rarely refer to Othello by his real name; they instead call him the Moor or some racist variation. Iago: refers to Othello as the Moor more than 20 times, by name only 5. Roderigo: does not refer to Othello by name, calling him the Moor twice and thicklips once. Brabantion and Emilia also never refer to Othello by name, calling him the Moor instead. Othello’s Africanness becomes essential to the play because he is perceived by other characters as an other. A deeper look into these characters and how they refer to Othello further supports their racist attitudes.
Iago’s attitude toward Othello • Refers to Othello in racist terms constantly: “an old black ram” (I.i.111) “the devil” (I.i.91) “Barbary horse” (I.i.111) He also says that Othello marring Desdemona is making “the beast with two backs” (I.i.115-116)
Roderigo’sattituded toward Othello • Desdemona’s marriage to Othellos is a “gross revolt” (I.i.134). • Their marriage is also “gross clasps of a lascivious Moor” (I.i.126). • Roderigo and Iago confirm the Elizabethan stereotypes, implying that Othello’s blackness connotes ugliness, lust, bestiality, treachery, and the demonic.
Brabantio’s view of his new son-in-law • Brabantio has a positive relationship with Othello until he elopes with his daughter. • He does not want a black man marrying his daughter. • Accuses him of being a “foul thief,” “damned,” and of attracting Desdemona through witchcraft. • Being a bond slave and pagan (I.ii.99) • Calls Othello a thing, not a person. • Lodovico also calls Othello a thing when he demands his corpse to be hid at the end of the play.
Emilia’s subtle racist attitude • Emilia does not seem to have any racist attitudes toward Othello throughout the entire play…until the end— • When Othello tells her he murdered Desdemons, Emilia snaps with racial fiery: “O, the more angel she, and you the blacker devil!” (V.ii.129-131). • This quote implies that she always thought of Othello as a devil, now he is a blacker devil. • Her accusation of him being a blacker devil implies that being black is negative in her view.
Desdemona’s view on her husband’s race • Although Desdemona is married to him, she makes it clear that it is not because of his physical appearance: • “I saw Othello’s visage in his mind” (I.iii.252). • She marries him because of his stories and his mind, so she was able to overlook his blackness. • This still shows she has a racist attitude.
Love, Sex, and Marriage—historical context • Family during Elizabethan and Jacobean England and its three major traits: • Matrix of procreation and education of the young • Focus on economic activity—production and consumption • Site for the exercise of patriarchal authority and the reproduction of age and gender hierarchies. In a rapidly growing metropolis, additional freedom and wider circle of acquaintances that London society offered wives and husbands created temptation the tested sexual morels to the limit.
Sexuality in Shakespeare’s time • There was an obsession with chastity of women. • The phenomenon of heterosexual jealousy • There was anxiety and violence engendered in men because of the regulation of women’s sexuality. • In any society where women are constructed as others by men, jealousy and paranoia will be present.
Love, Sex, and Marriage—women in Shakespeare’s work • Women were mistreated during the time of Shakespeare, and these rules applied to all women other than aristocratic women: • Women were excluded from universities and learned professions • Married women lost the right to their own property. • Wife beating was accepted and often used to solve a domestic dispute. • A man who was beaten by his wife failed to live up to his patriarchal expectations, and he was looked down upon.
Love, Sex, and Marriage in Othello • Often in Shakespeare’s work, men marginalize women to privilege their manly virtues. Also, women and men mistreat whores to privilege the feminine virtue of chastity. • Othello’s love for Desdemona, and vice versa, is pure, but as the play progresses Othello’s love gets tarnished. • Emilia mediates between wife and whore; between Desdemona and Bianca. • Morality is legislated by property owner • If you own the world—as men d0—you can make the rules, so men define right as what they do and wrong as what women do. • Rodergio and Iago speaking of marriage and money at the beginning of the play instantly defines Desdemona as a prize. • Desdemona ultimately gives in, not because of Othello’s manliness and strength, but rather because of her true love for Othello.
(Erotic?) love in Othello • A core element in Othello is an intense focus on the sexual relationship between and man and a woman (Othello and Desdemona). • Many readers think Desdemona is too good to be true—she’s too innocent to be a wife, but she’s too wifely to be innocent • When Desdemona explains her transfer of feeling from her father to husband, shows in archetypal terms how a girl becomes a woman. • The marriage of an old man and a young woman was generally used in a farce, but Shakespeare inverts expectations and intensifies the response.
Women’s voices in Othello • A revealing conversation between Desdemona and Emila comes when Desdemona prepare for bed in Act V. • The women talk about men and women, love and sex • The women are alone when they have this talk, so their private freedom makes them feel protected from men. • The conversation on page 2159 reveals Desdemona’s naïve purity and Emilia’s pragmatism. • The women talk about this subject because their husbands simply will not listen to them about it.
Order and class • Ideas about the nature of mankind, government, the society organization and the inferiority of women were widely debated. • Standards prescribed for political order did not always meet social realities. • Man had an ability to recognize virtue was an endowment from God. • The inferiority of women was ‘proved’ through passages from the Christian Bible.
Military class • There was a surge of social mobility that occurred at the boundaries between ruling and subject classes in late 16th century England. • A commander’s lieutenant is a sign of his powers. • By choosing a subordinate captain, the captain is choosing a replacement for himself, so it’s an important role. • Iago makes clear from the beginning of the play the he covets Cassio’s lieutenancy position.
Religion • Shakespeare was Christian, wrote for a predominately Christian audience, and Othello had a Christian setting. • The play has been interpreted with Othello representing God, Cassio is the figure of Adam, Desdemona is Christ and Iago is Satan. • Many of the speeches in the play have a Christian ring— • “I would not kill thy unprepared spirit” V.ii.31 • “I am not what I am” • “sorrow’s heavenly. /It strikes where it dot love” V.ii.20
Otherness in a play about an other • Othello is considered an other in the play for a variety of reasons. • He has to assimilate to Christianity • He is of different race • Iago plays on his race and uses stereotypes to distance Othello and make him seem an outsider to other characters.
It has often been debated whether or not Othello should be played by a black actor. He sometimes was played by a white actor whose face was painted black: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F96DlM3N5KQ • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDXG04pIH_0