Narrative Analysis in Injury Research Thomas Songer, PhD University of Pittsburgh firstname.lastname@example.org This injury was due to …….
Aims • Recognize the value of narrative data that accompanies coded data • Provide a framework for exploring narratives • Ultimate Goal: see to better understand circumstances of an injury
Qualitative Data • Data in the form of words, language in the form of extended text • Can be an alternative research strategy • The underlying assumptions, methods, and research procedures of qualitative approaches are often very different from quantitative approaches Thomas DR
Qualitative Research Approaches • Phenomenology • Ethnography • Narrative analysis • Grounded theory • General inductive • Discourse analysis • Case studies Thomas DR
Comparison of descriptive ability:Fx ankle running on base after dark; stepped in pothole Domain Data Type Nature of injury (N) External cause (E) ICD codes (N) STANAG (E) 824.1Fx of ankle--Medial malleolus, open 239Athletics/sports incl PT, other Medical (inpatient) Medical(outpatient) ICD codes (N) 824.1Fx of ankle--Medial malleolus, open Not available Hierarchical taxonomy & narrative text Inj Type = Fracture Body Part = Foot/ ankle Activity = RunningMechanism* = PotholeTime = 2200 hrsOn_Base = YESNarrative: “Jogging on running trail, detoured onto Center St due to mud . . . .” Safety * Derived from narrative
Text data accompanies computerized coded data 029801340982110000 TWISTED ANKLE WHILE WALKING 888015690134234520 112952589301300000 POSSIBLE FOOD POISONING 111436012045021439 210001214234131980 888121200012314521 013298231343287821 WOUNDED BY GUNSHOT 977237211010132123 012128881234100010 FELL AND STRUCK BED
Analytic Approaches • Computerized keyword search using automated coding software • manual keyword search • manual review • create new variables • recategorize data • code into categories • identify summary themes
Developing Categories for Analysis • Initial categories should be determined by the objectives of the research • Specific categories can be developed from the review of the data and the identification of frequent or significant themes, words, circumstances Thomas DR
Data Consistency • Identify a “case definition” or “eligibility criteria” • Go through data several times to check consistency of coding applied to the categories • Consider the use of an independent coder
An Alternative Approach • Analysis of narrative text structure • setting • individuals involved • problem • initiating event • 2nd event • 3rd event • 4th event • resolution
Limitations • No guidelines for what is entered as text • Manual review is time intensive • Purpose of data collection may not mirror underlying needs of injury research
Key Lecture Points • Narrative analysis is another research technique in the injury field. • It is advocated in situations where existing data contain very little information on the circumstances surrounding an injury. • The analytic approaches in narrative analysis are often subjective, and great care must be taken to develop data consistency to support the results of the analysis.