The Curriculum: models ESP311 – Human Movement Pedagogy 2
Curriculum models Models: Definition?
Curriculum models Models: Definition: A simplified representation of reality which is often depicted in diagrammatic form
Curriculum models Model: Purpose?
Curriculum models Model: Purpose: To provide a structure for examining the elements that go to make up curriculum planning, and how these elements interrelate.
Curriculum models Model: The literature in the area of curriculum has accepted the use of the term ‘model’ to explain both the nature and the process of curriculum development.
Curriculum models Models are used to explain: • levels of curriculum • aspects of organization practice • aspects of classroom instruction • types of decision making
Curriculum models Are designed to provide a basis for decisions regarding the selection, structuring and sequencing of the educational experiences
Curriculum models Over to you … From last weeks tasks 4 and 5
Over to you 4 Think back to your own HPE experiences at secondary school. • On what basis were the activities you did in HPE chosen and sequenced? • Did you experience the same activities each year? • How did major events in the school calendar influence the content? • Were you helped to refine your knowledge and skills? • Did students have opportunities to choose the activities? (adapted from Tinning, et al)
Over to you 5 When you are preparing a plan for a unit of work: • What elements would you need to consider in your planning, eg outcomes … • Put these elements into a suggested planning sequence or diagram form
The curriculum process The development of a curriculum involves the developer in decisions about the nature and appropriateness of the substantive elements, eg the: • outcomes • content • method • assessment strategies These decisions are made in relation to the context in which the curriculum will operate.
A continuum of curriculum models Rational/objectives models Cyclical models Dynamic/interaction models
A continuum of curriculum models Rational/objectives models: Ralph Tyler Hilda Taba
A continuum of curriculum models Cyclical models: Wheeler Nichols
A continuum of curriculum models Dynamic/interaction models : Walker Skilbeck
HPE Instructional Models • Need to consider which of the models makes the most sense to you as the major purpose for your program? • Can you defend such a focus to: • Parents • School Principal • Other teachers
HPE Instructional Models • multi-activity model • sport education • fitness education model • self-esteem model • movement analysis model • developmental model • personal and social development model
HPE Curriculum Models Broad categories • Subject matter models • multi-activity model • sport education • fitness education model • movement analysis model • adventure education • Personal meaning models • self-esteem model • developmental model • personal and social development model • Learning process model • games sense
HPE Instructional Models For each model: • What is the value perspective for • content selection ? • personal / individual development ? • social and cultural goals ? • Which value perspective is given higher value? • They differ from each other in the implied decision concerning what content and / or methodology is most worthwhile
HPE Instructional ModelsTask • What models make the most sense to you? • Rank these in terms of your personal preferences: • multi-activity model • sport education • fitness education model • self-esteem model • movement analysis model • developmental model • personal and social development model • In a couple of sentences outline the reason for your first two choices?
HPE Instructional ModelsTask (cont) • After you have ranked these models and reflected on the reasons for your choices take a minute to trace the origins of your reasons. For example: • your own interests and values? • what you have learned as an HPE major student? • the values of a coach or teacher you admire? • what you perceive to be the needs of youth today?
HPE Instructional Models Conclusion: • Many factors can influence the above decisions • It is perfectly valid to feel strongly about a particular curriculum purpose • In fact it will enhance your commitment and enthusiasm But: You need to be aware of this personal influence and modify it with additional knowledge, experiences and, importantly, reflection.