Part 23. Carbonyl Buildup Responses - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

chapter 23 carbonyl condensation reactions n.
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Part 23. Carbonyl Buildup Responses

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  1. Chapter 23. Carbonyl Condensation Reactions Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry, 6th edition

  2. Condensation Reactions • Carbonyl compounds are both the electrophile and nucleophile in carbonyl condensation reactions

  3. 23.1 Mechanism of Carbonyl Condensation Reactions • Carbonyl condensation reactions utilize -substitution steps • An enolate ion adds as a nucleophile to the electrophilic acceptor

  4. 23.2 Condensations of Aldehydes and Ketones: The Aldol Reaction • Acetaldehyde reacts in basic solution (NaOEt, NaOH) with another molecule of acetaldhyde • The b-hydroxy aldehyde product is aldol (aldehyde + alcohol) • This is a general reaction of aldehydes and ketones

  5. The Equilibrium of the Aldol • The aldol reaction is reversible, favoring the condensation product only for aldehydes with no  substituent • Steric factors are increased in the aldol product

  6. Aldehydes and the Aldol Equilibrium

  7. Ketones and the Aldol Equilibrium

  8. Mechanism of Aldol Reactions • Aldol reactions, like all carbonyl condensations, occur by nucleophilic addition of the enolate ion of the donor molecule to the carbonyl group of the acceptor molecule • The addition intermediate is protonated to give an alcohol product

  9. 23.3 Carbonyl Condensation Reactions versus Alpha-Substitution Reactions • Carbonyl condensations and  substitutions both involve formation of enolate ion intermediates • Alpha-substitution reactions are accomplished by converting all of the carbonyl compound to enolate form so it is not an electrophile • Immediate addition of an alkyl halide to completes the alkylation reaction

  10. Conditions for Condensations • A small amount of base is used to generate a small amount of enolate in the presence of unreacted carbonyl compound • After the condensation, the basic catalyst is regenerated

  11. 23.4 Dehydration of Aldol Products: Synthesis of Enones • The -hydroxy carbonyl products dehydrate to yield conjugated enones • The term “condensation” refers to the net loss of water and combination of 2 molecules

  12. Dehydration of -Hydoxy Ketones and Aldehydes • The  hydrogen is removed by a base, yielding an enolate ion that expels the OH leaving group • Under acidic conditions the OH group is protonated and water is expelled

  13. Driving the Equilbrium • Removal of water from the aldol reaction mixture can be used to drive the reaction toward products • Even if the initial aldol favors reactants, the subsequent dehydration step pushes the reaction to completion

  14. 23.5 Using Aldol Reactions in Synthesis • If a desired molecule contains either a -hydroxy carbonyl or a conjugated enone, it might come from an aldol reaction

  15. Extending the Synthesis • Subsequent transformations can be carried out on the aldol products • A saturated ketone might be prepared by catalytic hydrogenation of the enone product

  16. 23.6 Mixed Aldol Reactions • A mixed aldol reaction between two similar aldehyde or ketone partners leads to a mixture of four possible products • This is not useful

  17. Practical Mixed Aldols • If one of the carbonyl partners contains no  hydrogens and the carbonyl is unhindered (such as benzaldehyde and formaldehyde) it is a good electrophile and can react with enolates hen a mixed aldol reaction is likely to be successful • 2-methylcyclohexanone gives the mixed aldol product on reaction with benzaldehyde

  18. Mixed Aldols With Acidic Carbonyl Compounds • Ethyl acetoacetate is completely converted into its enolate ion under less basic conditions than monocarbonyl partners • Aldol condensations with ethyl acetoacetate occur preferentially to give the mixed product

  19. 23.7 Intramolecular Aldol Reactions • Treatment of certain dicarbonyl compounds with base produces cyclic products by intramolecular reaction

  20. Mechanism of Intramolecular Aldol Reactions • Both the nucleophilic carbonyl anion donor and the electrophilic carbonyl acceptor are now in the same molecule. • The least strained product is formed because the reaction is reversible

  21. 23.8 The Claisen Condensation Reaction • Reaction of an ester having an  hydrogen with 1 equivalent of a base to yield a -keto ester

  22. Mechanism of the Claisen Condensation • Similar to aldol condensation: nucleophilic acyl substitution of an ester enolate ion on the carbonyl group of a second ester molecule

  23. Features of the Claisen Condensation • If the starting ester has more than one acidic a hydrogen, the product -keto ester has a doubly activated proton that can be abstracted by base • Requires a full equivalent of base rather than a catalytic amount • The deprotonation drives the reaction to the product

  24. 23.9 Mixed Claisen Condensations • Successful when one of the two ester act as the electrophilic acceptor in reactions with other ester anions to give mixed -keto esters

  25. Esters and Ketones • Reactions between esters and ketones, resulting in -diketones • Best when the ester component has no  hydrogens and can't act as the nucleophilic donor

  26. 23.10 Intramolecular Claisen Condensations: The Dieckmann Cyclization • Intramolecular Claisen condensation • Best with 1,6-diesters (product: 5-membered-ketoester) and 1,7-diesters (product: 6-membered -ketoester)

  27. Mechanism of the Dieckmann Cyclization

  28. Alkylation of Dieckmann Product • The cyclic -keto ester can be further alkylated and decarboxylated as in the acetoacetic ester synthesis

  29. 23.11 The Michael Reaction • Enolates can add as nucleophiles to ,-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones to give the conjugate addition product

  30. Best Conditions for the Michael Reaction • When a particularly stable enolate ion • Example: Enolate from a -keto ester or other 1,3-dicarbonyl compound adding to an unhindered ,-unsaturated ketone

  31. Mechanism of the Michael Reaction • Nucleophilic addition of a enolate ion donor to the  carbon of an ,-unsaturated carbonyl acceptor

  32. Generality of the Michael Reaction • Occurs with a variety of ,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, esters, nitriles, amides, and nitro compounds) • Donors include -diketones, -keto esters, malonic esters, -keto nitriles, and nitro compounds • See Table 23.1