A Survey Of Concoction And Physical Standards For Human Physiology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

a review of chemical and physical principles for human physiology n.
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A Survey Of Concoction And Physical Standards For Human Physiology

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  1. A Review Of Chemical And Physical Principles For Human Physiology This review is provided as a basic minimum coverage of the physical and chemical organization of matter in living systems

  2. The Atomic Theory • All matter consists of tiny particles called atoms • Atoms are, in turn, made up of three fundamental particles, protons, neutrons, and electrons

  3. THE CARBON ATOM PROTON + NUCLEUS NEUTRON ELECTRON - ORBIT OR SHELL

  4. ATOMIC STRUCTURE • PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ARE IN THE NUCLEUS • ELECTRONS ARE IN ORBITS AROUND THE NUCLEUS • THERE ARE EQUAL NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS

  5. THE CARBON ATOM There are 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 6 neutrons in this atom NUCLEUS ORBIT OR SHELL

  6. ATOMIC MASS • PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ARE FAR MORE HEAVY THAN ELECTRONS • THE UNIT OF ATOMIC MASS IS THE MASS OF A PROTON OR NEUTRON • CARBON HAS AN ATOMIC MASS OF 12, THE TOTAL OF PROTONS PLUS NEUTRONS

  7. ATOMIC NUMBER • ATOMIC NUMBER OF AN ELEMENT IS THE NUMBER OF PROTONS N THE NUCLEUS • THE ATOMIC NUMBER IDENTIFIES THE ELEMENT AND DISTIGUISHES IT FROM ALL OTHER ELEMENTS • THUS CARBON IS THE ELEMENT WITH ATOMIC NUMBER 6

  8. THE CARBON ATOMCARBON HAS ATOMIC NUMBER 6 AND ATOMIC WEIGHT 12 There are 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 6 neutrons in this atom NUCLEUS ORBIT OR SHELL

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED ELEMENTS

  10. Chemical Bonds and Chemical Compounds • The shells or orbits which contain the electrons have characteristic occupancy capacity • The first three are 2, 8, and 8 respectively • Atoms tend to combine chemically forming either ionic or covalent bonds so that the outer orbits are complete

  11. THE IONIC BOND SODIUM HAS AN EXCESS ELECTRON, CHLORINE LACKS ONE Cl Na

  12. Na THE IONIC BOND ORBITS BECOME COMPLETE BY DONATION OF AN ELECTRON Cl POSITIVE ION NEGATIVE ION

  13. H H C H H THE COVALENT BOND ORBITS BECOME COMPLETE BY SHARING ELECTRONS H H C = H H

  14. CHEMICAL REACTIONS PROCESSES IN WHICH CHEMICAL BONDS ARE FORMED OR BROKEN ARE CALLED CHEMICAL REACTIONS CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

  15. ENZYMES • ENZYMES ARE BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS • CATALYSTS MAKE REACTIONS GO FASTER • THEIR NAMES USUALLY END IN “ASE” • EXAMPLES: ATPASE, KINASE, OXIDASE, ETC.

  16. MOLECULAR WEIGHTS • THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT IS THE SUM OF THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS OF THE CONSTITUENTS OF THE MOLECULE • EXAMPLE: WATER (H2O), THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT IS 16 + 1.01 +1.01= 18.02 ATOMIC MASS UNITS

  17. THE MOLE • THE WEIGHT IN GRAMS EQUIVALENT TO THE ATOMIC OR MOLECULAR WEIGHT IN ATOMIC MASS UNITS • A MOLE OF WATER HAS A WEIGHT OF 18.02 GRAMS • A MOLE OF ANY SUBSTANCE CONTAINS AVAGADRO’S NUMBER OF PARTICLES (6.02 x 1023)

  18. SOLUTIONS • A SOLUTION IS A HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE • IT CONTAINS A RELATIVELY LARGE AMMOUNT OF ONE SUBSTANCE, CALLED THE SOLVENT • IT MAY CONTAIN ANY NUMBER OF SOLUTES IN A FAR LESSER QUANTITY

  19. WATER AS SOLVENT • WATER IS THE UNIVERSAL BIOLOGICAL SOLVENT • WATER HAS UNIQUE PROPERTIES UNEQUALED IN NATURE • WATER IS A POLAR COMPOUND AND IS A GOOD SOLVENT FOR IONS • WATER DOES NOT MIX WITH NONPOLAR SUBSTANCES SUCH AS OILS

  20. ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS METAL SALTS FORM IONS UPON DISSOLVING IN WATER NaCl Na+ + Cl- CaCl2 Ca+ + 2Cl-

  21. MACROMOLECULES • LARGE MOLECULES CAN BE FORMED WITH COVALENT BONDS BETWEEN SMALLER SUBUNITS • IN CHEMISTRY THESE ARE CALLED POLYMERS

  22. BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES • CARBOHYDRATES • LIPIDS • PROTEINS • NUCLEIC ACIDS • HIGH ENERGY BIOMOLECULES (ATP)

  23. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ARE CLASSIFIED IN TERMS OF REACTIVE PARTS OF THE MOLECULES CALLED FUNCTIONAL GROUPS • ONE IMPORTANT FUNCTIONAL GROUP IS THE ORGANIC ACID

  24. ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS • CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CAN BE PROTON DONORS OR ACCEPTORS • PROTON DONORS ARE ACIDS • PROTON ACCEPTORS ARE BASES • ACIDS AND BASES REACT TO NEUTRALIZE EACH OTHER FORMING SALTS

  25. ACID/BASE REACTIONS HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O ACID + BASE SALT + WATER

  26. CARBOHYDRATES • CONTAIN C, H AND O (nCH2O) • SIMPLE SUGARS ARE MONOSACCHARIDES (GLUCOSE, GALACTOSE, FRUCTOSE) • SUGARS FORM POLYMERS: STARCH OR GLYCOGEN (USUALLY A STORAGE FORM) • SIMPLE SUGARS ARE WATER SOLUABLE

  27. LIPIDS • FATTY ACIDS • TRIGLYCERIDES • PHOSPHOLIPIDS • STEROIDS • CHOLESTEROL

  28. PROTEINS • POLYMERS MADE FROM 20 AMINO ACIDS JOINED IN PEPTIDE BONDS • MANY IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS INCLUDING ENZYMES • THE RESULT OF THE GENETIC CODE IN DNA

  29. PROTEIN STRUCTURE • PRIMARY: THE SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS CODED IN DNA • SECONDARY: FOLDING INTO HELICAL OR SHEET STRUCTURES DUE TO HYDROGEN BONDING AND OTHER FACTORS • TERTIARY: SIDE CHAINS INTERACT • QUATENARY: AGGREGATES FORM

  30. NUCLEIC ACIDS • DNA: A DOUBLE HELIX FORMED BY TWO POLYMERS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS • RNA: A SINGLE POLYMER OF NUCLEIC ACID • COMPLEMENTARY PAIRS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS ENABLE MOLECULES TO DUPLICATE OR COPY EACH OTHER, THE BASIS FOR THE GENETIC CODE

  31. ENERGY CURRENCY ATP, ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE, IS A HIGH ENERGY COMPOUND WHICH STORES AND TRANSFERS ENERGY A-P-P - P A-P-P + P + ENERGY