Germplasm Upgrade of Maize (Pearl) Venture Outline - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Germplasm Upgrade of Maize (Pearl) Venture Outline

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  1. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project Overview Germplasm Enhancement of Maize M. Blanco USDA-ARS PIRU North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station - May 29, 2008 -

  2. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project • A collaborative effort of public and private sector researchers to broaden and enhance the maize germplasm base. More than 60 collaborators. • Two permanent breeding sites: • Ames, IA for development of 25% tropical and temperate exotic • Raleigh, NC for development of 50% tropical • GEM is administered by the USDA-ARS Plant Introduction Research Unit (PIRU) located in Ames, IA; and the Plant Science Research Unit (PSRU) in Raleigh, NC • Technical Steering Group (TSG) provides guidelines for research, germplasm, and methods. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  3. GEM US Private Cooperators: AgReliant Genetics, LLC BASF Plant Science Breeding, L.L.C. Beck's Superior Hybrids, Inc. Benson Seed Research, LLC Brandy Wine Seed Farms, LLC Brodbeck Seeds FFR Cooperative Genetic Enterprises Int'l GDU Inc. Hoegemeyer Enterprises Identity Seed & Grain Co. Illinois Foundation Seeds, Inc. JFS and Associates, LTD MBS Genetics, LLC. Monsanto Company Mycogen Seeds National Starch and Chemical Co. PANNAR Seed Pioneer Hi-Bred Int., Inc. PRIME Farm Seeds, Inc. Professional Seed Research, Inc. G and S Crop Services Schillinger Seeds SEEDirect Syngenta Seeds, Inc. Terrell Seed Research Wyffels Hybrids GEM Int’l Private Cooperators: Semillas Tuniche, Ltda, Chile APEX-AGRI, France Hyland Seeds, Canada Maharlika Genetics, Mexico Nidera, Argentina Nugenplasm, LLC, Indonesia Prosemillas, Peru Seed Asia Co., Ltd. Thailand Sursem SA, Argentina GEM Private Cooperators- 27 US and 9 Int’l companies Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  4. GEM Public Cooperators: Cornell University Iowa State University Louisiana State University North Carolina State University North Dakota State University Ohio State University Texas A&M University Truman State University The University of Delaware The University of Illinois The University of Nebraska The University of Tennessee The University of Wisconsin USDA-ARS: 7 Research Units: CGBRU (GA) CHPRRU (MS) CICGRU (IA) PGRU (MO) PIRU (IA) PSRU (NC) SIMRU (MS) GEM Int’l Public Cooperators: Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Brazil Instituto Nacional Tecnologia Agropecuaria (INTA), Argentina The University of Guelph, Canada GEM NGO Cooperator: Michael Fields Agricultural Institute (WI) GEM Public & International Cooperators- 17 Universities, 7 ARS units, 3 Int’l public, and 1 NGO Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  5. Maize Importance & Germplasm Status • 93 million acres in US planted in 2007 • 13 billion bushels harvested in 2007 (>$50 Billion value) • Less than 5% of world germplasm diversity is being used • Only two races (northern flint x southern dent) evolved to become “Corn Belt Dent” used in the US • Between 250-300 races of maize comprise the germplasm base Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  6. GEM Objectives • Manage and coordinate a multi-site cooperative program for germplasm evaluation, development, and information sharing • Evaluate diverse maize germplasm for adaptation, yield, stress resistance, and key value-added traits (VAT’S) • Develop and release enhanced germplasm with key traits • Develop innovative means of managing and transferring information to the maize community Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  7. GEM Priority Traits Abiotic Stress Tolerance: • Drought, heat • Stable yield production Reduced level of mycotoxin: • Aflatoxin • Fumonisin Disease resistance: • Anthracnose, Gray leafspot (GLS), leaf blights, ear rots Insect Resistance: • Corn rootworm (CRW), earworm, corn borer (multiple insect resistance) Value added grain and silage traits: • Protein >13%, oil >5 %, starch >70% • Amino acid profile; starch functional properties • Ethanol conversion potential of grain and stover • Silage yield and nutritional quality Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  8. Races of Maize Definition: “A group of related individuals with enough characteristics in common to permit their recognition as a group.” “A group of related individuals with a significant number of genes in common, major races having a smaller number in common than sub-races.” (Anderson and Cutler, 1942) Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  9. Mexico Paraguay Peru United States (temperate/tropical) Uruguay (temperate) Venezuela Argentina (temperate) Bolivia Brazil Columbia Chile (temperate) Guatemala Countries belonging to the Latin American Maize Project (LAMP) * Germplasm Enhancement of Maize * LAMP began in 1987. Funded by Pioneer Hi-Bred Int., Inc. >12,000 germplasm accessions evaluated.

  10. LAMP Accessions New Accessions Make Top Crosses US Lines Non-US Lines Make Breeding Crosses Evaluations: BC obs; YT, stress, VAT Line Development Germplasm Selection, Evaluation, Development, & Release Germplasm Pool Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Release Adapted Lines

  11. Summer 1 (Accession x Private line 1) x Private line 2 Winter 2 Self 300 plants (S0) – mild selection GEM Protocol Winter 1 Accession x Private line 1 Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Summer 2 Plant S1 ears to make S2 – Select at 20% intensity Winter 3 Make S2 topcross to elite tester inbred Yield test 55 S2 topcrosses per population (derived from 30 populations) x 4 Locations = 1650 hybrids Summer 3

  12. GEM Protocol – cont’d Winter 4 Make S3 increase Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Trait Evaluation – VAT, Stress, disease, & insect Cross 200 S3’s to two testers Summer 4 Summer 5 Yield trial 400 S3 topcrosses at 8 locations Release of germplasm & information (approx. 10 S3 lines per year) to GEM cooperators. Public release approx. one year later Winter 6

  13. GEM TR88 Combine Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  14. GEM Releases by Country and Races Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  15. GEM Germplasm Releases Germplasm Enhancement of Maize * Crop Science registered and ** 20 of these 29 lines were Crop Science registered.

  16. Evaluation of lines for aflatoxin accumulation at Mississippi State in 2007 Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Indicates resistance to fumonisin also. Source: Paul Williams, USDA-ARS CHPRRU

  17. Evaluation for Fusarium and Fumonisin at Raleigh, NC in 2007 Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Source: Jim Holland, USDA-ARS PSRU Indicates resistance to aflatoxin also.

  18. Fusarium Ear Rot Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Susceptible Line Resistant Line GEMS-0002 Public Release Bill Dolezal, Pioneer Hi-Bred Int’l, Woodland, CA (2005)

  19. GEMS-0003 Diplodia Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Bill Dolezal, Pioneer Hi-Bred Int’l, Johnston, IA (2006)

  20. Aflatoxin of TAES experimental hybrids and check hybrids at Corpus Christi (CC), Beeville (BV) in Texas and in MS in 2005 and 2006 Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Source: W. Xu, Texas A&M; and P. Williams, USDA-ARS CHPRRU

  21. Insect Resistance Corn Rootworm (CRW) - U. of Illinois and USDA-ARS (MO): • Identified sources of resistance from GEM breeding crosses-UR13085, AR17056, and other sources • Selection among GEM x GEM derived lines for CRW resistance • Synthetics and mapping population being made & inheritance studies • Double haploids (DH) being made Southern Insects - USDA-ARS units (GA and MS): • Southwestern corn borer (MS) • Corn earworm, weevil, stink bugs (GA) • 1st year data for resistance of 1883-001/98 to multiple insects (GA) • Further improvement of GEMS-0001 (MS) Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  22. GEM x GEM Top Crosses Germplasm Enhancement of Maize • GEMS-0115 x GEMN-0097: 1st place in 2007 & 2nd place 2006 • GEMS-0113 x GEMN-0097: 10th place in 2007 & 3rd place in 2006 • HC33 x GEMN-0097: 2nd place in 2007 & 10th place in 2006

  23. GEMS-0115(DKB844:S1601-073-001) Country: Mexico Race: Tropical Hybrid Type: 25% Tropical Heterotic Group: Stiff Stalk Protein: 12.7% Oil: 4.0% Starch: 69.0% Density: 1.303 Other Specialty Traits: Starch Properties Days to Anthesis: 64 Days to Silk: 65 Husk Tightness: 6 Husk Length: Cob Color: Red Cob Length: cm Tassel Angle: 60° Tassel Branches: 8 Plant Height: 153 cm Ear Height: 91 cm Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  24. GEMS-0113(CHIS775:S1911b-120-001) Country: Mexico Race: Tuxpeño Type: 25% Tropical Heterotic Group: Stiff Stalk Protein: 15.8% Oil: 4.3% Starch: 64.9% Density: 1.329 Other Specialty Traits: Starch Properties & Southern Leaf Blight Resistance Days to Anthesis: 60 Days to Silk: 64 Husk Tightness: 7 Husk Length: 7 Cob Color: Red Cob Length: 10-16 cm Tassel Angle: 60° Tassel Branches: 13 Plant Height: 152 cm Ear Height: 91 cm Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  25. GEM Website Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  26. GEM Website – Important Key Features: • GEM Cooperator List • “What’s New” section • Yield Trial & Lab VAT Data • Public Cooperator Research Reports • GEM Releases and Key Traits • www.public.iastate.edu/~usda-gem Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  27. GEM Releases & Key Traits Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  28. GRIN Website Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  29. GRIN Website – Important Key Features:Genetic Resources Information Network • Germplasm and valuable information for multiple species • Accessions used by GEM are publicly available • GEM Public Releases (83 releases to date) • http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/ • step 1: search GRIN • step 2: accession area queries • step 3: fill in “text search query” box with Zea GEM (83 releases) Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  30. New Races for Allelic Diversity Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  31. SUMMARY • Effective exotic germplasm introgression requires extensive time, resources, the cooperation of multiple research institutions, and coordination of research efforts by multiple scientists of various disciplines to broaden the germplasm base • The GEM collaborative network has released 190 lines derived from 24 races originating from 14 countries used in public and private research and breeding programs • Released germplasm has provided new sources of resistance to abiotic stress, disease and insect pressures, reduced mycotoxin levels, and VAT’s for grain and silage (protein, AA, oil, starch, ethanol potential) • Research generates new knowledge of breeding methods for exotic germplasm (SSD, DH, etc.) and selection procedures Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  32. Future Challenges for GEM • Develop and expand our acquisition of new genetic resources and make them available to the GEM network • Develop non-destructive, high throughput assays to identify favorable key trait phenotypes and associated genetic information. • Evaluate, develop, and release adapted lines from ~250 races from allelic diversity effort. • Identify new cooperators to support these efforts, and research partnerships to study and utilize allelic diversity from these sources. • Develop DH inbred lines from GEM germplasm using multiple haploid generating technologies. Explore success rate of DH’s among racial accessions, and chromosomal segment effects. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  33. Welcome: GEM Field Day(September 18, 2008, Ames, IA) Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  34. Acknowledgements USDA-ARS PIRU, Ames, IA • Mack Shen, IT Specialist • Andy Smelser, Research Technician • Fred Engstrom, Research Technician • Candice Gardner, Research Leader • Mark Millard, Maize Curator • Sue Duvick, Lab Manager USDA-ARS PSRU, Raleigh, NC • Matt Krakowsky, Southeast GEM Coordinator • Dale Dowden, Research Technician • David Marshall, Research Leader North Carolina State University • Major Goodman, William Neal Reynolds Distinguished Professor GEM Public and Private Sector Cooperators Germplasm Enhancement of Maize

  35. Maizing Questions? Germplasm Enhancement of Maize