Part 14 Frill Digestive Organs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

chapter 14 accessory digestive organs n.
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Part 14 Frill Digestive Organs

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  1. Salivary glands Teeth Pancreas Liver Gall Bladder Chapter 14Accessory Digestive Organs

  2. 1. Salivary Glands • 3 glands - Parotid glands – located anterior to ears - Submandibular glands - Sublingual glands • Saliva • Mostly water • Mixture of mucus and serous fluids • Helps to form a food bolus • Salivary amylase begins starch digestion • Dissolves chemicals so they can be tasted

  3. 2. Teeth - Masticates (chews) food - Deciduous (baby or milk) teeth; 20 teeth by age two - Permanent teeth; between the ages of 6 to 12; full set = 32 teeth

  4. Regions of a Tooth Crown – exposed part • Outer enamel • Dentin • Pulp cavity Neck • Region in contact with gum • Connects crown to root • Root • Periodontal membrane • attached to bone • Root canal carrying blood vessels and nerves

  5. 3. Pancreas • Makes digestive enzymes that break down all types of food • Enzymes secreted into duodenum • Alkaline fluid added with enzymes neutralizes acidic chyme • Endocrine products of pancreas • Insulin • Glucagons

  6. 4. Liver & Bile • Largest gland; right side under the diaphragm • 4 lobes suspended by falciform ligament • Connected to the gall bladder via common hepatic duct • Bile made by liver cells • Bile composition • Bile salts • Bile pigment (bilirubin - breakdown of hemoglobin) • Cholesterol • Phospholipids • Electrolytes

  7. 5. Gall Bladder • Sac found in depression of liver • Stores bile from the liver by way of the cystic duct • Bile is introduced into the duodenum in the presence of fatty food • Gallstones can cause blockages

  8. Processes of the Digestive System • Ingestion – into mouth • 2. Propulsion – moving foods • 3. Mechanical digestion - Mixing food • a. mouth & tongue • b. stomach churning • c. segmentation in sm. int. • 4. Chemical Digestion - Enzymes break down food • 5. Absorption - products into the blood or lymph • 6. Defecation - Elimination of indigestible substances as feces

  9. Control of Digestive Activity • Controlled by reflexes of parasympathetic division • Chemical & mechanical receptors are located in organ walls that trigger reflexes • Stimuli include: • Stretch of the organ • pH of the contents • Presence of breakdown products • Reflexes include: • Activation or inhibition of glandular secretions • Smooth muscle activity

  10. Deglutition (Swallowing) Buccal phase – Voluntary, in mouth, bolus made, tongue pushes into pharynx Pharyngeal-esophageal phase - Involuntary, Tongue blocks mouth, Soft palate (uvula) blocks the nasopharynx, Epiglottis blocks the larynx, Peristalsis moves the bolus, cardioesophageal sphincter opens with pressure

  11. Food Breakdown in the Stomach • Gastric juice - regulated by nerves & hormones • Presence of food or falling pH = release of gastrin • Gastrin causes stomach glands to produce protein-digesting enzymes • Hydrocholoric acid makes stomach very acidic • Activates pepsinogen to pepsin for protein digestion • Provides a hostile environment for microorganisms

  12. Digestion and Absorption • Protein digestion enzymes • Pepsin – an active protein digesting enzyme • Rennin – works on digesting milk protein • The only absorption that occurs in the stomach is of alcohol and aspirin • Stomach empties in 4-6 hrs.

  13. Digestion in the Small Intestine • Enzymes from the brush border • Break double sugars into simple sugars • Complete some protein digestion • Pancreatic enzymes • Help complete digestion of starch (pancreatic amylase) • Carry out about half of all protein digestion (trypsin, etc.) • Responsible for fat digestion (lipase) • Digest nucleic acids (nucleases) • Alkaline content neutralizes acidic chyme

  14. Stimulation of Pancreatic Juice • Vagus nerve • Local hormones • Secretin • Cholecystokinin

  15. Absorption in the Small Intestine • Water is absorbed along the length of the small intestine • End products of digestion • Most substances are absorbed by active transport through cell membranes • Lipids are absorbed by diffusion • Substances are transported to the liver by the hepatic portal vein or lymph

  16. Absorption in the Large Intestine • No digestive enzymes are produced • Resident bacteria digest remaining nutrients • Produce some vitamin K and B • Release gases • Water and vitamins K and B are absorbed • Remaining materials are eliminated via feces

  17. Propulsion in the Large Intestine • Sluggish peristalsis • Mass movements • Slow, powerful movements • Occur three to four times per day • Presence of feces in the rectum causes a defecation reflex • Internal anal sphincter is relaxed • Defecation occurs with relaxation of the voluntary (external) anal sphincter