Introduction • Most Frequent BGSU OSHA Recordable Injuries/Illnesses • Slips, trips and falls • Strains and sprains • Cuts • Struck by an object
Objectives • Types of accidents • Causes or contributing factors of accidents • How to perform an accident investigation • What documentation should be completed
Overview • The failure of people, equipment, supplies or surroundings to behave or react as expected, causes most accidents. • Accident investigations determine how and why these failures occur. • Accident investigations are a tool for supervisors and accident investigation teams to find main causes of illnesses, injuries, and “near misses” allowing for corrective actions.
Overview • Departments are encouraged to use the BGSU Accident Investigation Report Form as a method of reducing hazards in their areas. • The aim of an accident investigation should be to prevent recurrence of the same accident.
Definitions • Accident • An unplanned event that interrupts the completion of an activity that may or may not result in personal injury, illness or in property damage. • Near Miss • An unplanned event that interrupts the completion of an activity which directly involves the workers and does not result in personal injury, illness or in property damage. • Accident Investigation • The process of determining the causes of accidents and implementing corrective actions to prevent recurrence.
Types of Accidents • Minor Accidents • Accidents that cause minor injury/illness, requiring little or no treatment, or property damage. • Serious Accidents • Accidents that cause injury/illness or damage to equipment and/or property. If the accident is considered an OSHA recordable the accident is serious.
Outcomes of Accidents • Negative • Injury, illness, or death, property and equipment damage, lost productivity, poor morale and $$$$$$. • Positive • Accident investigations • increase productivity, improve operations, raise awareness and prevent recurrence.
Causes and Contributing Factors of Accidents • Accident Causation Model • Tasks • Material • Environment • Personnel • Management
1. Task • Ergonomics • Safety work procedures • Condition changes • Process • Materials • Workers • Appropriate tools/materials • Safety devices (including lockout)
2. Material • Equipment failure • Machinery design/guarding • Hazardous substances • Substandard material
3. Environment • Weather conditions • Housekeeping • Temperature • Lighting • Air contaminants • Personal protective equipment
4. Human Factor • Level of experience • Level of training • Physical capability • Health • Fatigue • Stress
5. Management/Process Failure • Visible active senior management support for safety • Safety policies • Enforcement of safety policies • Adequate supervision • Knowledge of hazards • Hazard corrective action • Preventive maintenance • Regular audits
Who Should Perform theAccident Investigation? • Dependent on the severity • Person involved • Supervisor • Environmental Health and Safety • The advantage of having a supervisor perform the investigation is the supervisor is likely to be the most knowledgeable about the work, the persons involved, and current conditions. • The supervisor can also take immediate remedial action.
Steps in an Accident Investigation • Initial Response • Information Gathering • Analysis and Conclusion • BGSU Accident Investigation Report
Step 1 - Initial Response • After an accident occurs, the initial response should be as follows: • Get treatment for individuals that may be injured. • Assure the safety of others. • Secure the site. • Complete the BGSU Injury/Illness Reporting Form.
Step 2 – Information Gathering • Inspect the accident site and note information such as: • Positions of injured workers • Equipment and materials being used • Safety devices in use • Position on appropriate guards • Positions of controls of machinery • Damage to equipment • Housekeeping of the area • Weather conditions • Lighting levels • Noise levels
Step 2 – Information Gathering • Gather information: • On procedures and rules for the area • On maintenance records and equipment involved • By taking photographs and making diagrams • From employees
Step 2 – Information Gathering • Interview • Injured person or persons • Witnesses • Supervisors • It is important to interview to establish an understanding and to obtain in his/her own words what happened.
Step 2 – Information Gathering • Interview Do’s • Put the witness, who is probably upset, at ease • Emphasize the real reason for the investigation, to determine what happened and why • Let the witness talk, you listen • Confirm that you have the statement correct • Try to sense any underlying feelings of the witness • Make short notes only during the interview • Ask open ended questions
Step 2 – Information Gathering • Interview Do Not’s • Intimidate the witness • Interrupt • Prompt • Ask leading questions • Show your own emotions • Make lengthy notes while the witness is talking
Step 2 – Information Gathering • Ask Who? What? Where? When? How? • Conduct interviews separately • Make it clear that the investigation is used to avoid recurrence and not to place blame
Step 3 – Analysis and Conclusion • Isolate contributory factors • Would the accident have occurred if this particular factor was not present? • Determine • Why the accident occurred • A likely sequence of events and probably causes • Accident Tree Handout (Tab 1) • Example • Bad Report (Tab 2) • Better Report (Tab 3)
Step 3 – Analysis and Conclusion • Draw conclusions and make recommendations based on key contributing factors and causes. • Implement corrective actions and set a time table to complete them.
Step 4 - BGSU Accident Investigation Report • Statement of injured or ill employee concerning the incident and injured employee information • Witness statements • Equipment involved • Other factors or contributing causes • Corrective action plan Tab 4
Summary • What are the different types of accidents • What causes or contributes to accidents • How do you perform an accident investigation • What documentation should be completed
Where to Get More Information • Injury and Illness Reporting and Job Safety at BGSU Training • Environmental Health and Safety Web Site http://www.bgsu.edu/offices/envhs • Environmental Health and Safety 372-2171