Accident Prevention Program (APP) An Overview Purpose: To assist you in developing and implementing a written Accident Prevention Program which is tailored to the needs and potential hazards associated with your work.
What Will Be Covered • Why have an accident prevention program • Rule requirements for accident prevention program • Elements of a written program • How to implement an effective program • Where to get help
Why have an accident prevention program (APP)? • It will help to prevent employee injuries on the job. • It will help you find hazards before they cause accidents. • It will help you deal with accidents if they do occur. By “accidents” we mean events where employees are killed, maimed, injured, or become ill from exposure to toxic chemicals or microorganisms (TB, Hepatitis, HIV, Hantavirus etc).
Why have an accident prevention program (APP)? It helps control industrial insurance costs. Low # of Claims Average # of claims High # of Claims Your premium rate depends on number of claims filed. An accident prevention program can help you to control hazards that cause accidents and claims.
A True Story • A Tire Store – 35 Employees • Had a single high cost claim (shoulder injury) • Premium rate increased from 71¢/hr to 86¢/hr • Yearly premium increased $10,000 To make up for the premium increase @ 10% profit margin – you must get $100,000 additional business These are actual facts and figures from a tire store in eastern Washington. The company had 13 minor claims in 2000-2002 with the single high-cost claim ($29,000) occurring in 2002. The employee was off work for several days and received time-loss payments from L & I. He also had expensive medical bills which were billed to L & I.
Why have an accident prevention program? It’s required by WISHA Rules. WISHA Safety & Health Core Rules – WAC 296-800-140 Safety Standards for Construction – WAC 296-155-110 Other standards – agriculture, logging, etc. APP rules are nearly identical for all these types of businesses. In most cases, if you are visited by a WISHA inspector, he or she will look for your APP. If the inspector finds serious hazards and no APP or major deficiencies in the APP, you may receive a a citation with monetary penalty.
What is an accident prevention program? • A plan of action to: • Involve workers and management in workplace safety and health, • Identify and control safety hazards, • Handle emergencies, • Give new employees job safety orientation, • Provide for personal protective equipment as needed. A plan for safety must be more than posting a sign that says “Be Careful. In an emergency call 911.” It will help you to identify hazards before they cause accidents and help you deal with accidents if and when they occur.
What is required for all employers? • Must be outlined in writing. • Must be tailored to the worksite. • Must include employee safety orientation and training. • Must include safety committee or safety meetings. • You must develop, supervise and enforce a safety training training program • You must make sure your APP is effective in practice. Link to Core Rule APP requirements
APP Requirements For Construction • Supervise and enforce an effective program • Outlined in writing • Employee safety orientation • Weekly leader/crew safety meetings • Weekly walk-around safety inspections Link to Construction APP requirements
APP Requirements for Agriculture • Outlined in writing • Tailored to the needs and hazards of your operation • Employee safety orientation • Monthly walk-around safety inspections with employee representative • Monthly foreman-crew safety meetings Link to Agriculture APP requirements
A written APP can be an outline • Simple and direct is O.K. • Must cover all the regular and predictable hazards of the worksite • Include employee input to identify new hazards not in outline • Some employers will need a more complex APP depending on hazards • It can’t be just a paper program The written program must cover all the typical, predictable and evident hazards of the worksite. However, a written APP that is too long or complicated tends not be read. As long as there is method to report new or unforeseen hazards, it is not necessary to go into great detail about every possible hazard one could imagine.
APP should be a “living plan” • If it is not a “living plan” actually used, then it will just be: • a document gathering dust on a shelf, • something you did to please L&I, • of no real value to your company. If you’re going to spend time and energy developing this plan, it might as well be a tool that will add value to your company, will help you to provide a safe and productive workplace, and keep your industrial insurance premiums to a minimum.
APP Must be Tailored to the Worksite • It can’t be a non-specific generic program • It must address the actual worksite hazards and conditions • It must include the work of all employees By “generic” we mean one that does not address the actual worksite hazards and conditions. Some trade associations (such as agriculture) produce generic programs that includes the most common hazards of a particular industry. These are usually acceptable, but you must also cover the unique hazards of your worksite.
Employee Safety Orientation • The orientation must cover: • A description of total safety program • On-the-job instructions on how to do job tasks safely • How to report accidents • Location of first aid facilities
Employee Safety Orientation(con’t.) Also include in orientation: • How to report safety hazards • Use and care of personal protective equipment • What to do in emergencies • How to identify hazardous chemicals and what to do if exposed to them. Link to sample chemical hazard communication program
Safety Committees • At least as many elected employees as management-selected members • Elected chairperson • Committee determines meeting schedules • Keep meeting minutes and attendance • Cover specific topics Safety Committees are required if you have 11 or more employees at the worksite. The number of employee-elected members of the safety committee must be equal to or more than the number of employer-selected members
Safety Meetings • Allowed if 10 or less employees • Meet monthly • At least one management representative • Document attendance • Cover specific topics Safety meetings are an allowable substitute for a safety committee if you have 10 or less employees. They are also allowed if you have 10 or less employees on different shifts or there are 10 or less employees at widely separate work locations. You would need to have safety meetings at each shift or each work location.
Construction Crew/Leader Safety Meetings requirements • Hold worksite meetings: • At start of job • Every week • As needed when change in conditions or hazards • Document topics and attendance
Agriculture Safety Meetings • Not required for short-term operations like harvesting • Monthly meetings tailored to current activities • Outline what discussed and who attended in meeting minutes • Copies of minutes kept at location where most employees report • Retain minutes for one year Even though safety meetings are not required for agriculture operations that last less than a month, a safety orientation is still required at the beginning of the operation. For example, in cherry harvesting, pickers should still have a safety orientation on how to safely use a ladder.
When is an APP “effective in practice” ? • When It Works!! • It is more than just words, platitudes or slogans. • All regular and predictable hazards are addressed. • Serious or frequent injuries are not occurring. The goal of an APP is to prevent injuries. Frequent injuries would be a sign that not all hazards are addressed or your safety rules are not being enforced. Minor or infrequent non-serious injuries do not mean your APP is ineffective. An occasional missed hazard (one saw guard out of several saws is missing in a cabinet shop for example) also does not necessarily mean your APP is ineffective.
Some ways to make an APP “effective in practice” • Determine what injuries and near-misses have occurred and why • Do a hazard evaluation or survey of the workplace • Establish safety goals – management commitment • Train employees on job hazards (required) • Effectively and consistently enforce safety rules • Provide needed protective equipment and make sure it is used (required)
Injury Determination • Review claims and injury records Review your OSHA 300 Log if you have kept one. See if there are several people having the same type of accident (indicates that a process or procedures may need changing) or if one person is having several accidents doing different jobs (indicates that this person probably needs retraining). • Interview employees for unreported injuries Talk to employees: - Do they think they have a safe place to work. - Do they have ideas about how to improve safety. - Do they know how, when and to whom to report an accident. - Do they know of any accident that have NOT been reported.
Near Misses Investigate near-misses since they are potential accidents Accidents or injuries are the “tip of the iceberg” of hazards Accidents Hazards Don’t just investigate accidents. Near misses should be reported and investigated. They were in a sense, “aborted accidents”. Criteria for investigating an incident or near miss: What is reasonably the worst injury the worker would have suffered had an actual accident happened? If it would have resulted in a serious injury, then the incident or near miss should be investigated with the same thoroughness as an actual accident investigation.
Job Steps Hazard Protection Safety Hazard Evaluation Job Safety Analysis (JSA) Sharp edges & splinters Pick up stock Gloves Blade edges and flying chips Blade guard and safety glasses Cut stock with power saw A JSA is not required, but is one method of determining hazards at the worksite. This is an example of a job safety analysis of a carpenter shop. Each task is listed with it’s particular hazard and protection for that hazard. This method can be used to determine your company’s need for personal protective equipment. Link to sample JSA
Workplace Safety Evaluation Worksite Safety Checklist • Tailored to your workplace • Used by foreman or safety supervisor YES NO ITEM Employees wearing safety glasses? Saw guards in place? Work area free of tripping hazards? A periodic safety evaluation is recommended, especially if conditions change frequently, such as in construction. Often representatives of the safety committee will do this. This checklist should be developed to check for the hazards that are likely to be found on your site. It can be used for periodic walkaround safety surveys to make sure all safety measures are in place.
Hazard Identification Conduct Accident Investigations • Do with a team: supervisors, employees, outside experts • Examine: • Persons • Equipment • Environment • Look for fact, not fault • Prepare a written report • Do follow-up Investigate as soon as possible. Take pictures, draw diagrams and interview all who witnessed the accident. Try to find what can be changes to prevent the accident from happening again. Write a formal report (can be covered at the next safety meeting). Make sure that suggested changes are made.
A successful APPneedsmanagement commitment Sample statements: • “We care about your safety…” • “We will provide a safe work place…” • “Nothing is important enough to do unsafely.” • “Supervisors and employees are expected to work safely and bring up safety issues…” A message from the owner ... John Smith J Management safety statements are not required, but are recommended. Management support is vital for success of program else neither supervisors nor employees will take it seriously. A specific written statement, is not required, however.
Some Management Resources in Support of APP Incentives Time Safety Equipment • In addition to leading by example, management should give employees resources and incentives. Recognize that an effective program implies a commitment of: • - support of safety as a regular budget item, • - time for inspections, training, safety committee, maintenance, • - equipment such as guards, PPE, training materials, promotions, • - safety recognition and incentive programs that reward safety efforts.
The Role of Line Manager/Foreman For a successful APP, you need line manager buy-in and commitment.Suggested ways to do that: • Spell out their safety duties • Give them explicit safety authority • Hold them accountable for safety To have a program that is “effective in practice”, management ( the owner, general manager, supervisor, foreman and crew boss) must practice safety as well as the employees. If management doesn’t wear PPE where the employee are required to, the employees are less likely to wear the required PPE when management is not present. Employees must be make to feel comfortable making safety corrections without getting “permission” from someone else.
The Role of Line Managers/Foremen • They should: • Be personal examples • Identify hazards • Monitor workers • Participate directly in problem-solving
Employee Input • Employee hazard reports • Get input from safety committee • Consider using an employee report form • Do follow-up Link to sample employee report form You can use a report form, a suggestion box, or get input from safety committee or verbally during safety meetings. Make available and encourage the use of form for employees to report hazards they see. Management should have procedures to address issues identified and notify individuals or safety committee what actions were taken.
Training Programs • Who? • Management • Employees • What? • Basic orientation • Specific machines, processes, skills • When? • Before doing the work • When duties work change • When deficiencies are noted • Documentation • Instructor’s outline • Attendance records
Training Programs • Management needs training to understand the hazards and safety requirements as much if not more than the line employees. • Initial orientation is very important. New employees are quite vulnerable to accident unless you clue them in on: • - what they are supposed to do, • - what to watch out for, and • - what to do when something goes wrong. • Employees may be expected to start the job with the skills necessary to do the job but it is the employer’s responsibility to insure that the employee knows the safety rules related to the job. • Don’t rely on the previous employer having done the training or that the employee says they have experience. You don’t know the quality of training they received or if any bad habits have developed.
Specific Training Programs • WISHA has specific training requirements for certain topics: • Hazard communication • Respirator use • Other PPE use • Forklifts • Confined space work • Fall protection in construction • Pesticides in agriculture • Others Link to WISHA-required training
Safety Rules are Important Part of APP There are two types: • General company safety rules such as: • “Wear steel-toed shoes onsite” • “No horseplay” • “Do not operate machinery without guards in place.” • Specific job related safety rules such as: • Grinder safety rules • Roofing fall protection rules
Safety Disciplinary Policy • In writing • Employees are informed or trained on policy • Applies to everyone – including management • Fair and progressive enforcement Where’s his fall protection? A disciplinary policy is not required, but highly recommended. The policy should be in writing and employees should be informed/trained before it can be used against them. Policy should be imposed on management as well as employees. Records of policy application should be kept for documentation that the policy is being enforced.
Personal Protective Equipment What hazards exist that require use of PPE? • Determine need –who, when, what • Ensure it provides adequate protection • Train employees on use • Provide, maintain and replace as needed. A PPE hazard assessment is required by WISHA Rules on PPE. You can determine what PPE is needed from doing a hazard assessment. Injury reports may also provide additional information – there may be a pattern of injuries that can be prevented with the use of appropriate PPE. Link to sample PPE hazard assessment checklist
Additional Information More information on APP is available on the WISHA webpage at: http://www.lni.wa.gov/safety/basics/Programs/Accident/default.htm For additional assistance, you can call one of our consultants. Click below for local L & I office locations: http://www.lni.wa.gov/wisha/consultation/regional_consultants.htm
Thank you for taking the time to learn about safety and health and how to prevent injuries and illnesses.