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Fast FSW Demonstrating

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  1. HIGH SPEED FSW MODELING Vanderbilt University: Welding and Automation Laboratory: Nashville, TN Dr. Reginald Crawford Thomas S. Bloodworth III Paul A. Fleming David H. Lammlein Tracie Prater Dr. George E. Cook Dr. Alvin M. Strauss Dr. D. Mitch Wilkes Los Alamos National Laboratory: Los Alamos, NM. Dr. Daniel A. Hartman

  2. OVERVIEW • Introduction • Experimental Method/Setup • Mechanical Models • Simulation • Results • Conclusions • Current and Future Work

  3. INTRODUCTION • Current uses of FSW: • Aerospace (Spirit, Boeing, Airbus) • Railway (Hitachi Rail) • Shipbuilding/marine (Naval vessels) • Construction industries and others (Audi) • Moving to lighter materials (e.g. Aluminum) • Conflict: 3-D contours difficult with heavy duty machine tool type equipment

  4. INTRODUCTION • Ideally see widely applicable industrial robots equipped for FSW • Benefits: • lower costs • energy efficient • 3-D contours etc. • Problem: High axial forces required to FSW (1-12+ kN or 225-2700+ lbs), difficult to maintain even using robust robots especially at large distances from the base unit • Possible solution: Utilize increased rotational speed/decreased axial force relationship to aid in developing a larger operational envelope for high speed FSW

  5. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD • Purpose: Examine axial forces during high speed friction stir welding with respect to mechanistic defect development due to process parameter variation • Two Mechanical Models • Smooth Tool Pin (Preliminary) • Threaded Tool Pin (More Comprehensive) • Parameters (Variables) • Rotational Speed (RS) • Travel Speed (TS)

  6. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD • Model solved with CFD package FLUENT for steady state solutions • Force simulated for the three spatial dimensions as well as torque • Experimental force and torque data recorded using a Kistler dynamometer (RCD) Type 9124 B

  7. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP • VU FSW Test Bed: Milwaukee #2K Universal Milling Machine utilizing a Kearney and Treker Heavy Duty Vertical Head Attachment modified to accommodate high spindle speeds. • Samples- AA 6061-T6: 76.2 x 457.2 x 6.35 mm (3 x 18 x ¼”) • Rotational Speeds: 1000-5000 RPM • Travel Speeds: 290 - 1600 mm min-1 (11.4 in min-1 – 63 in min-1)

  8. 20 HP Motor V-Belt and Pulley System Air/Oil Lube System Vertical Head Air/Oil Delivery Lines Dynamometer Axial Position Monitor Tool Sample Backing Plate VUWAL Test Bed

  9. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP • The tool was set up for a constant 2o lead angle • Fine adjustments in plunge depth have been noted to create significant changes in force data as well as excess flash buildup • Therefore, significant care and effort was put forth to ensure constant plunge depth of 3.683 mm (.145”) • Shoulder plunge constant: .1016 mm (.0040 in)

  10. SMOOTH PIN MODEL • Heat transfer to the support anvil ignored • Tool pin and sample finite element mesh consists of • 22497 tetrahedron brick elements • 5152 nodes • Tool properties were for H-13 tool steel (e.g. density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity) • Assumed to rotate counter-clockwise at RS (LH) • 12.7 mm shank included to account for heat conduction from the tool/sample interface

  11. SMOOTH PIN MODEL Tool Rotational Direction Flow Domain Outlet • Tool assumed to rotate with uniform and constant angular velocity, RS. • Weld material is assumed incoming from the left upon the rotating tool • Origin of the system is interface at the center of the pin bottom and the sample • Sample given metallurgic properties (i.e. AA6061-T6) Flow Domain Inlet Tool Shank Sample Top Sample Side Tool Shoulder Flow Direction Sample Bottom Weld Plate Smooth tool pin

  12. THREADED PIN MODEL • 2nd Model incorporates the #10-24 TPI Left-Handed thread • Incorporates the threaded tool pin, and heat sinks on the shank • Heat conductivity to the anvil is included • Identical metallurgic properties given to pin and sample as the smooth pin model • Anvil properties - Cold rolled steel

  13. THREADED PIN MODEL • Tool mesh: • 37051 tetrahedron brick elements • 8324 nodes • Sample mesh: • 92018 tetrahedron brick elements • 20672 nodes • Anvil mesh: • 42200 quadrilateral brick elements • 24024 nodes • Density of mesh increases with respect to the pin/weld material interface

  14. FLUENT: ASSIGNMENTS AND ASSUMPTIONS • Goal: Compare the two models’ steady state welding conditions with experimentally determined data • Flow inlet given constant flow rate (TS) • Zero heat flux condition • bounding regions transfer no heat to/from the weld • No-slip (sticking) condition • all rotational velocity of the tool is transmitted to the weld material at the interface • Temperature was simulated for both mechanical models

  15. TEMPERATURE SIMULATION • Temperature was simulated using the heat generation model developed by Schmidt H. et al. The contact stress is approximated as, = 241 MPa, AA 6061-T6 • The total heat generation approximated as: w0 = rotational speed of tool Rs = shoulder radius Rp = pin radius h = height of the pin • Solutions were generally of the order 104 W/mm3

  16. TEMPERATURE CONTINUED • Subsequent simulations to determine welding temperature were run and input into FLUENT via user defined C code • Method inherently ignores transient state including initial plunge and TS ramp up; creates an isothermal model • The Visco Plastic model used to determine flow stress and viscosity ( and m respectively) • Weld plate region: visco-plastic material

  17. VISCO-PLASTIC MODEL • Seidel, Ulysse, Colegrove et al. implemented VP model very successfully at relatively low wp • RS: 500 rpm • TS: 120 mm min-1 (5.11 in min-1) • High wp implies: • Increase RS or • Decrease TS • Geometries use VP model with 10-13 fold parametric increase accurately

  18. VISCO-PLASTIC MODEL • The VP model determines stress as, Constants and Variables Z = Zener-Hollomon parameter R = Universal gas constant T = absolute temperature (K) = effective strain-rate a, A, n, and Q = material constants • Viscosity is approximated as, • The model is therefore a function of Temperature, T, and the effective strain-rate,

  19. AXIAL FORCE SIMULATION • Smooth pin model: a reference pressure was included to compensate for the lack of an anvil (open domain) • Pref = FZ/Ap • Threaded pin model includes anvil: • no reference pressure is necessary (closed domain)

  20. 944.88 mm min-1 1137 mm min-1 1353 mm min-1 1607 mm min-1 3000 RPM, 289.56 mm min-1 2250 RPM, 289.56 mm min-1 1500 RPM 2250 RPM 3000 RPM 3750 RPM Surface deformation PROCEDURE • Experimental sequence performed by holding the TS constant and increasing the RS incrementally until the weld matrix set was either complete or excessive surface defect occurred • Samples etched for inspection for worm-holes (low wp)

  21. RESULTS • Both models correlate well with experimental results • Greater convergence at high wp • Increased RS/decreased Fz relationship continues for high speed FSW TS=685.9mm min-1 (27 in min-1) TS=1137.92mm min-1 (44.8 in min-1)

  22. RESULTS • Fz increases as expected for increasing TS when RS constant • Limit to the RS increase/Fz decrease not met • This relationship is key to widespread implementation of FSW • It is also well known that welding torque decreases for increased RS • Mz<50 N @ RS>1500 rpm (Mz<13 lbs) Fz vs. TS for RS = 1500 rpm Mz vs. RS for TS = 685.9 mm min-1

  23. CONCLUSIONS • The smooth pin model correlated better than the threaded pin model for all simulations • However, threaded model more accurately represents the experimental setup • anvil, heat sinks, pin profile • Increase in RS led to greater correlation in both models with respect to the experimental data • Barrier to high speed FSW is overheating and subsequent surface flash

  24. Thermal Camera Dynamometer Motor Feedback Linear Position Encoders Schematic of most recent VUWAL data collection instrumentation FUTURE WORK • Possible solutions to high speed FSW problems • Non-rotating, floating, or differentially rotating shoulder • Implementing force control scheme • Other control possibilities include acoustic signal analysis, temperature analysis, etc. • Currently implementing three axes of linear position control as well as thermal imagery as a possible segway to future control schemes • Latest rotational speeds exceeding 6500 RPM • Latest travel speeds exceed 3810 mm min-1 (150 in min-1) • Repeat using butt weld configuration and investigate unconventional weld defects through various stress testing

  25. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS • Completion of this was made possible through support provided by an American Welding Society and a NASA GSRP Fellowship grant • Additional funding was provided by the NASA Space Grant Consortium of Tennessee and Los Alamos Natl. Laboratory. Los Alamos, NM • Dr. Author C. Nunes of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center provided valuable expertise and guidance through private communication which contributed to the completion of this work

  26. REFERENCES • Cook G.E., Crawford R., Clark D.E. and Strauss A.M.: ‘Robotic Friction Stir Welding’. Industrial Robot 2004 31 (1) 55-63. • Mills K.C.: Recommended Values of Thermo-physical Properties for Commercial Alloys. Cambridge, UK 2002. • Schmidt H., Hattel J. and Wert J.: ‘An Analytical Model for the Heat Generation in Friction Stir Welding’. Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 2004 12 143–57. • Crawford R: Parametric Quantification of Friction Stir Welding. M.S. Thesis, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 2005. • Seidel T. U. and Reynolds A.P.: ‘Two-dimensional friction stir welding process model based on fluid mechanics’.Science and Technology of Welding & Joining 2003 8 (3), 175-83.

  27. REFERENCES • Colgrove P.A. and Shercliff H.R.: ‘Development of Trivex friction stir welding tool Part 2 – three-dimensional flow modelling’. Science and Technology of Welding & Joining 2004, 9(3) 352-61. • Ulysse P.: ’Three-dimensional modeling of the friction stir-welding process’ International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 2002 42 1549–57. • Sheppard T. and Jackson A.: ‘Constitutive equations for high flow stress of aluminum alloys’ Material Science and Technology 1997 13 203-9. • FLUENT, Fluid Dynamic Analysis Package, version 6.122 Fluid Dynamics International, Evanston, IL. • Talia G.E. and Chaudhuri J.: A Combined Experimental and Analytical modeling Approach to Understanding Friction Stir Welding. Department of Mechanical Engineering Presentation, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 2004.