The Sensory system and Torment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

the nervous system and pain n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Sensory system and Torment PowerPoint Presentation
The Sensory system and Torment

play fullscreen
1 / 40
Download Presentation
ariel-gross
Views
Download Presentation

The Sensory system and Torment

Presentation Transcript

  1. The Nervous System and Pain CHAPTER 7

  2. What is Pain? • An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. • NOCICEPTION • PAIN • SUFFERING • PAIN BEHAVIOR • Pain is always subjective • One of the body’s defense mechanisms - warns the brain that its tissues may be in jeopardy • May be triggered without any physical damage to tissues. • Acute pain is the primary reason people seek medical attention and the major complaint that they describe on initial evaluation • Chronic pain can be so emotionally and physically debilitating that it is a leading cause of suicide.

  3. The Nervous System and Pain

  4. PNS – Nerve Fiber Types • Afferent – Sensory Neurons • Three Types Are Important to Understand Pain • A-delta fibers – smaller, fast transmitting, myelinated fibers that transmit sharp pain • Mechanoreceptors – Triggered by strong mechanical pressure and intense temperature • C-fibers – smallest, slow transmitting unmyelinated nerve fibers that transmit dull or aching pain. • Mechanoreceptors – Mechanical & Thermal • Chemoreceptors – Triggered by chemicals released during inflammation • A-beta fibers – large diameter, fast transmitting, myelinated sensory fibers • Efferent – Motor neurons

  5. Spinal Cord • Multiple ascending and descending tracts of interneurons (connect afferent & efferent) • Afferent Neurons – Enter to dorsal (back) side • Efferent Neurons – Exit the ventral (front) side

  6. Spinal Cord • Spinal Layers • Spinal grey matters divided into 10 layers • SubstantiaGelatinosa • Composed of a layer of cell bodies running up and down the dorsal horns of the spinal cord • Receive input from A and C-fibers • Activity in SG inhibits pain transmission

  7. The Brain • Thalamus • Somatosensory Cortex

  8. Thalamus • The sensory switchboard of the brain • Located in the middle of the brain

  9. Somatosensory Cortex • Area of cerebral cortex located in the parietal lobe right behind the frontal lobe • Receives all info on touch and pain. • Somatotopically organized

  10. Pain Pathways – Going Up • Pain information travels up the spinal cord through the spino-thalamic track (2 parts) • PSTT • Immediate warning of the presence, location, and intensity of an injury • NSTT • Slow, aching reminder that tissue damage has occurred

  11. Pain Pathways – Going Down • Descending pain pathway responsible for pain inhibition

  12. The Neurochemicals of Pain • Pain Initiators • Glutamate - Central • Substance P - Central • Brandykinin - Peripheral • Prostaglandins - Peripheral • Pain Inhibitors • Serotonin • Endorphins • Enkephalins • Dynorphin

  13. Theories of Pain • Specificity Theory • Began with Aristotle • Pain is hardwired • Specific “pain” fibers bring info to a “pain center” • Refuted in 1965 • Gate Control Theory

  14. Gate-Control Theory – Ronald Melzack (1960s) • Described physiological mechanism by which psychological factors can affect the experience of pain. • Neural gate can open and close thereby modulating pain. • Gate is located in the spinal cord. • It is the SG

  15. Opening and Closing the Gate • When the gate is closed signals from small diameter pain fibres do not excite the dorsal horn transmission neurons. • When the gate is open pain signals excite dorsal horn transmission cells

  16. Three Factors Involved in Opening and Closing the Gate • The amount of activity in the pain fibers. • The amount of activity in other peripheral fibers. • Messages that descend from the brain.

  17. Conditions that Open the Gate • Physical conditions • Extent of injury • Inappropriate activity level • Emotional conditions • Anxiety or worry • Tension • Depression • Mental Conditions • Focusing on pain • Boredom

  18. Conditions That Close the Gate • Physical conditions • Medications • Counter stimulation (e.g., heat, massage) • Emotional conditions • Positive emotions • Relaxation, Rest • Mental conditions • Intense concentration or distraction • Involvement and interest in life activities

  19. Categories of Pain • Pain can be categorized according to its origin: • Cutaneous – Skin, tendons, ligaments • Deep somatic - Bone, muscle connective tissue • Visceral – Organs, cavity linings • Neuropathic – Nerve pain • By certain qualities • Radiating • Referred • Intractable

  20. Phantom Limb Pain • Pain in a absent body part • Very common in amputees • Ranges from tingling top sensation to pain

  21. Acute Pain • ACUTE – Pain lasting for less than 6 months • Highly correlated to damage • Anxiety abates w/treatment • De-activation often helpful

  22. Chronic Pain • Pain lasting > 6 months • Not correlated to tissue damage • Learned/Reinforced • Often associated w/psychopathology or coping problems • More likely to abuse alcohol and drugs • Leads to shutting down • Typically does not respond to drugs very well • Activity is the best medicine

  23. Measuring Pain • Physiological • Unreliable • Self-report • Behavioral observations • Rankings • Pain questionnaires • Psych tests

  24. Headaches • Tension - Muscular • Daily hassles and perfectionism predict frequency and duration of headaches (Hons & Dewey, 2004) • Migraine – Muscular and vascular • Neuroticism scores predict migraines for females, but not males. • Abbate-Daga et. Al, (2007) • 105 Migrane w/out aura vs. 79 health controls • Migraine group greater than controls on • Depression • Anger management • Overcontrol • Harm-avoidance, persistence and lower in self-directedness

  25. Back Pain • 80% of US residents experience LBP • Many causes, but only 20% have definite identification • Burns (2006) • Chronic LBP • Induced anger and sadness • Anger tightened LB muscles in CLBP not C • Sadness did not have and effect • No effect found in other muscles

  26. MANAGING PAIN Medical and Psychosocial Approaches

  27. Multiple Sites of Control

  28. Medical Treatments for Pain Non-opiate Analgesics • Act peripherally • NSAIDS • COX inhibitors • Advil, Vioxx, Aleve • Steroidal Drugs • Suppress immune system • Cortisone, Prednisone

  29. Medical Treatments for Pain Opiate Analgesics • Act centrally via endogenous opiate system • Short-acting • Long-acting • Problems • Tolerance • Dependence

  30. Medical Treatments for Pain Skin Stimulation • Massage • Great as an adjunct • TENS • Mixed results • Acupuncture • Effective for a number of types of pain • Reduces the need for meds

  31. Medical Treatments for PainSurgery • Surgery to reduce pain • Brain surgery – ablate thalamus • For intractable pain (cancer) • Surgery to restore function • Surgery for merely pain relief should be avoided • Back • Carpal Tunnel

  32. Psychosocial Interventions to Improve Coping w/Pain • Hypnosis • Biofeedback • Relaxation Training • Behavior Modification • Cognitive Therapy/CBT • Multimodal Approaches

  33. Relaxation Training • Variety of techniques utilizing relaxation, distraction and re-focusing • Generally Effective and Cheap • Progressive Muscle Relaxation • Meditative Relaxation • Mindfulness Meditation • Guided Imagery

  34. Behavior Modification Programs • Selectively reinforce new and more adaptive coping behaviors • Exercise • Activities • Communication • In regards to pain - extinguish pain behavior

  35. Cognitive Therapy/CBT • CT = Reappraisal + Coping Skills and Emotional Expression … CBT = CT + Behavior Mod • Inoculation Training (CBT) • Conceptualization • Skill acquisition and rehearsal • Application and follow-through • Overall CT & CBT Effective for many conditions • Table in your book • LBP • Recurrent Abdominal Pain • Rheumatoid Arthritis • Many more