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Properties of Water

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Properties of Water

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  1. Properties of Water Covalent bonding Polar covalent bond – unequal sharing of electrons A great example of a molecule with polar covalent bonds is water. Why is water considered polar? What is a partial positive and partial negative charge?

  2. Properties of Water Covalent bonding vs. Hydrogen bonding Hydrogen Bond Covalent Bond

  3. Properties of Water Universal Solvent Water is the solvent of Life! Solute– substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution Solvent– fluid that dissolves solutes Example: Ice Tea – water is the solvent and tea and sugar the solutes

  4. Properties of Water Cohesion, Adhesion and Surface Tension cohesion = water attracted to other water molecules because of polar properties adhesion = water attracted to other materials surface tension = water is pulled together creating the smallest surface area possible

  5. Properties of Water Capillary Action Because water has both adhesive and cohesive properties, capillary action is present. Capillary Action = water’s adhesive property is the cause of capillary action. Water is attracted to some other material and then through cohesion, other water molecules move too as a result of the original adhesion. Ex: Think water in a straw Ex: Water moves through trees this way

  6. Properties of Water In order to raise the temperature of water, the average molecular speed has to increase. It takes much more energy to raise the temperature of water compared to other solvents because hydrogen bonds hold the water molecules together! Water has a high heat capacity. “The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius.” High Heat Capacity

  7. Properties of Water Density Water is less dense as a solid! This is because the hydrogen bonds are stable in ice – each molecule of water is bound to four of its neighbors. Solid – water molecules are bonded together – space between fixed Liquid – water molecules are constantly bonding and rebonding – space is always changing

  8. Properties of Water So, can you name all of the properties of water? Adhesion Cohesion Capillary action High surface tension Holds heat to regulate temperature (High heat capacity) Less dense as a solid than a liquid

  9. Acids and Bases Strength compared using pH scale Ranges from 0 – 14 Logarithmic Scale (gets 10x bigger/smaller) Acid – donates H+ when added to aqueous solutions Ranges from pH 0-6.9 Base – breaks up into hydroxide (OH-) ions and another compound when placed in an aqueous solution Ranges from pH 7.1 – 14 Distilled water is pH 7.0 or neutral. Why? H2O H+ + OH-

  10. Acids and Bases Buffers – compounds used to maintain a contant pH within a system H2CO3 H+ + HCO3- Carbonic acid bicarbonate ion

  11. Acids and Bases

  12. Making Biological Molecules and H2O Condensation Reaction H2O Hydrolysis Reaction