Similar Life systems 3023 By Brian Matchett and Alyson Walaskay - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Similar Life systems 3023 By Brian Matchett and Alyson Walaskay PowerPoint Presentation
Similar Life systems 3023 By Brian Matchett and Alyson Walaskay

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Similar Life systems 3023 By Brian Matchett and Alyson Walaskay

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  1. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 3023 By Brian Matchett and Alyson Walaskay

  2. WHAT IS COMPARATIVE ANATOMY?

  3. Comparative Anatomy • The study of and comparison of body parts of different species

  4. Comparative Anatomy Includes: • Change, adaptation, and mutation of species • The invasion of new territories • Species compatibility with surroundings

  5. How Can Comparative Anatomy Help Us? • Understand our history • Consider plans for change • Improve animal genetics • Preserve endangered species

  6. Why Should We be Aware of Comparative Anatomy? • Variations in care for animals • Differences in animal habits

  7. Adaptation • Genetic and physiological changes that occur due to pressures or changes in an animal’s environment

  8. Adaptation Changes Examples: • Forelimb of humans used for manipulating • Webbed foot of seal used for swimming • Front feet of a mole used for digging

  9. Structural Development • Homologous Structures • Analogous Structures

  10. Homologous Structures • Have similar structures, but different uses • E.g. Turtle leg and bird wing

  11. Analogous Structures • Body parts similar in use, but different in structure • E.g. Bird wing and insect wing

  12. Directional Terms • Used to describe the positions of structures on the body relative to other structures or locations

  13. Cranial – closer to the head of the animal Caudal – closer to the tail Medial – closer to the midline of the limb, trunk or head Lateral – farther away from the midline

  14. Dorsal – close rot the top side (back) of the animal Ventral – closer to the bottom side (belly) of the animal Proximal – closer to the attachment of the appendage to the body Distal – farther away from the attachment of the body

  15. Comparative Anatomy of Typical Farm Animal Species Includes • Skeletal Structures • Reproduction • Digestive Systems

  16. Skeletal Structures • Protects vital organs and gives basic form and shape to an animals body

  17. Reproduction • The production of live, normal offspring

  18. Puberty – age at which reproductive organs become functionally operative Gestation – time from breeding or conception of a female until she gives birth to her young Estrus – time for acceptance of the male and normally coincides approximately with ovulation “Heat” Estrous Cycle – Estrus cycle or the time from one estrus to the next

  19. Digestion • Includes all the organs that are involved in the digestion of food

  20. Types of Digestion • Monogastric or Simple Stomach • Ruminant • Avian

  21. Monogastric • Characterized by the inability to digest roughage efficiently • Enzymes used to break food down • Includes: humans, swine, rabbits and horses

  22. Ruminant • Handles the breakdown of large amounts lignified fiber • Has four different compartments: • Rumen - Omasum • Reticulum - Abomasum • Includes: sheep, cows, goats

  23. Avian • Designed for grinding hard or encased food • Has a gizzard • Have no teeth • Includes: all birds

  24. WEB CITATIONS • BSC Courseware http://tidepool.st.usm.edu/crswr/homologousstructs.html • Homologous Structures http://www.kent.wednet.edu/staff/rlynch/sci_class/chap06/homologous.html

  25. WEB CITATIONS cont. • Animal Feeds and Nutrition http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ans012/gi_tract.htm • Michael's Photo Gallery http://www.netaxs.com/~mhmyers/image.html