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Behavioral Perception Information for Individual Mediation Choice Making

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  1. Behavioral Observation Data for Individual Intervention Decision Making George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut Nov 18, 2010 www.pbis.orgwww.cber.orgwww.swis.org

  2. PURPOSE Provide overview of how observationally-based data can be used to guide intervention decisions for individual behavior management planning. • Foundations • Behavioral Data: Function-based Support • Examples

  3. Participants should be able to describe…

  4. Foundations

  5. Behaviorism SWPBS Conceptual Foundations Laws of Behavior ABA Applied Behavioral Technology PBS Social Validity SWPBS All Students

  6. Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports

  7. RtI

  8. SWPBS is

  9. Integrated Elements Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES 15 Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  10. Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT FEW ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% SOME Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings 23 ALL ~80% of Students

  11. 23 RTI Continuum of Support for ALL Few Some All Dec 7, 2007

  12. Continuum of Support for ALL Math Science Spanish Reading Soc skills Soc Studies Basketball Label behavior…not people Dec 7, 2007

  13. RTI Continuum of Support for ALL Anger man. Prob Sol. Ind. play Adult rel. Attend. Coop play Peer interac Label behavior…not people Dec 7, 2007

  14. ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS • TERTIARY PREVENTION • TERTIARY PREVENTION • Function-based support • Wraparound • Person-centered planning ~5% ~15% • SECONDARY PREVENTION • SECONDARY PREVENTION • Check in/out • Targeted social skills instruction • Peer-based supports • Social skills club • PRIMARY PREVENTION • PRIMARY PREVENTION • Teach SW expectations • Proactive SW & classroom discipline • Positive reinforcement • Effective instruction • Parent engagement • Active supervision ~80% of Students

  15. 23 Continuous progress monitoring of some Universal Screening of All

  16. Good Data Systems

  17. 4 Main Data Concerns

  18. What is Function Based Support?

  19. Non-examples of Function-Based approach

  20. Only 2 Basic Functions Neg Reinf Pos Reinf Existing aversive condition identified

  21. Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai, 2005

  22. 6

  23. 5 What is basic behavior unit of behavioral observation? Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Observ. action & response class Infrequent event/ condition affecting main. conseq. Events signal conseq. likely if behavior emitted Events following behavior & increase probability • “Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observed • Represents basic working unit of FBA • Directly guides development of BIP TE = Functional Relationship when describing a predictable & verifiable relationship among 4 elements

  24. Testable Hypothesis “Basic Unit” Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Infrequent events that affect value of maint. conseq. Following events that maintain behaviors of concern Preceding events that trigger or occasion Set of related behaviors of concern

  25. When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Avoid difficult tasks What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands

  26. Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention. Escape adult & peer attention What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention

  27. Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day. Escape peer attention What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence New student Student approaches & speaks in English Cleo turns away Other student walks away

  28. When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment. Access peer & adult attention What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence Teacher asks what capitol city of country is Napoleon give correct answer Teacher gives verbal praise & time to work with a friend None

  29. As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.” Access OR escape peer attention? What function? Setting event Antecedent Response Consequence How do you know? Assess? How do you know? Look at him. “What’s up!” “Who ya lookin’ at?” “Ya want Some?” “Ya talkin’ to me? Kids shake heads & call him “weirdo” ??

  30. TH1 for Hillary:"When Hillary sits next to Bill, Hillary whispers in his ear. Bill laughs." • Test manipulation? • Put Al in Bill’s seat. • Effect: • Hillary whispers in Al’s ear. • Develop new testable hypothesis!

  31. TH2:“When Hillary sits next to boys, she whispers in their ears. The boys laugh.” • Test manipulation? • Put Monica in Bill’s seat. • Effect: • Hillary does not whisper. • Use info to develop intervention

  32. Example 1: Different behaviors with different functions • Kirsten’s teachers agree that she has2 response classesthat interfere with her social success at school, & develop two testable hypotheses:

  33. Setting Event Setting Event   Antecedent Event Antecedent Event   Behavior Behavior   Consequence Event Consequence Event None None Peers play game & have conflict. Teacher presents multiple step request. Verbal protest, non-compliance, foot stomping. Pushes peers away, uses profanity, throws rocks. Teacher repeats request 4 to 5 times & threatens after school suspension. Peers stop playing with Kirsten. Get adult attention • Implication! • 2 intervention variations Escape peer social

  34. Example 2: Same behaviors with different functions • Amy teachers have noticed two different conditions when Amy displays same problem behaviors (1 response class). They developed following two testable hypotheses:

  35. Setting Event Setting Event   Antecedent Event Antecedent Event   Behavior Behavior   Consequence Event Consequence Event None None Teachers give Amy corrective feedback about her work. Peers try to engage Amy in con-versations. Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head. Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head. Peers move away. Teachers sit down next to her, rub her shoulders, & say comforting words. Avoid peer attention • Implication! • 2 intervention variations Get adult social

  36. Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers “FACTS” STEP 1: Student/ Grade: _____Clarence/5th grade_____ Date: ____January 11___________ Interviewer: ___________Sugai________ Respondent(s): ____Thomas_____ STEP 2: Student Profile: Please identify at least three strengths or contributions the student brings to school. C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to him, and he can be very convincing and sincere. He’s academically competent and seems to be moving smoothly and successfully through the school curriculum. STEP 3: Problem Behavior(s): Identify problem behaviors ___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___ Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___ Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__ Verbal Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________ ____X _ Verbally Inappropriate___ Self-injury Describe problem behavior:C. may have one of the shortest fuses I’ve seen. One little tease by a peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates through a behavioral sequence that begins with passive in subordination (non response), moves to a mild protest, shifts to harassment and name calling, increases to property damage and even to physical aggression. Its interesting that he seems to “enjoy” the reactions he gets from peers that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look up to him for his aggressiveness.

  37. STEP 4: Routine Analysis

  38. When has FBA been done?