Bird Strikes: Hazards and Avoidance Sponsored by the FAA Aviation Safety Program. Presented by: Captain Carl Valeri www.ExpertAviator.com
Why should we be concerned with bird strikes? • Bird and other wildlife strikes to aircraft annually cause over $650 million in damage to U.S. civil and military aviation. • Bird strikes put the lives of aircraft crew members and their passengers at risk.
Why should we be concerned with bird strikes? • Over 219 people have been killed worldwide as a result of wildlife strikes since 1988.
Bird Strike Myth #1 • Bird strikes cannot cause serious airline accidents. • Since 1975, nine large jet airliners have had major accidents where bird strikes played a significant role.
Don’t be deceived by their beauty. The European Starling caused the most fatal bird strike accident in aviation history!
March 10, 1960 • Boston Logan Airport a Lockheed Electra turbo-prop ingests European Starlings during takeoff. • All Four Engines are damaged. • The plane crashed into Boston Harbor killing all 62 people on board. • FAA initiates action to develop minimum bird ingestion standards for turbine powered engines.
January 15, 2009 • Airbus A320 Departs LaGuardia Airport striking a flock of Canadian geese.
Plane successfully ditches in the Hudson River. All 155 on board survive!
26 February 1973 • On departure from Atlanta, Georgia's Peachtree-Dekalb Airport, a Lear 24 jet struck a flock of brown-headed cowbirds attracted to a nearby trash transfer station.
26 February 1973 • Engine failure resulted. The aircraft crashed, killing 8 people and seriously injuring 1 person on the ground.
26 February 1973 This incident prompted the FAA to develop guidelines concerning the location of solid waste disposal facilities on or near airports.
Bird Strike Myth #2 • Myth - Bird strikes are rare.
Bird Strike Myth #2 • Myth - Bird strikes are rare. • Over 87,000 bird strikes to civil aircraft in the United States were reported to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) from 1990-2008, a mere 20% of the number that likely occurred.
Bird Strike Myth #2 • This equates to 13 reported bird strikes per day. • It is estimated the actual number of bird strikes per day totals 65!
Bird Strike Myth #3 • Myth - Bird strikes are no more of a problem today than 20 or 30 years ago.
Bird Strike Myth #3 • In North America, bird strike hazards are increasing. Because of outstanding wildlife conservation and environmental programs in North America, populations of many bird species have increased dramatically since the 1970s.
Bird Strike Myth #3 • Airports have become an attractive habitat for birds since the environment on and around the airport is opportune for eating and breeding.
Bird Strike Myth #3 • Since 1970 the Canadian geese population in the United States has increased from 1.2 million to 5.5 million 2008.
A group of professionals met in the early 1970s. to discuss airfield problems, including wildlife hazards. • In 1975, the ad hoc meetings led to the formation of the BASH, The Bird/Wildlife Aircraft Strike Hazard Team.
One of the Team's goals is the preservation of war fighting capabilities through the reduction of wildlife hazards to aircraft operations. • The team is responsible for developing research programs to reduce bird strike potential around airfields and during low-level flight operations
USAF Bird Avoidance Model • The United States Air Force has developed a predictive Bird Avoidance Model (BAM) using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology as a key tool for analysis and correlation of bird habitat, migration, and breeding characteristics, combined with key environmental, and man-made geospatial data. • The model is available to all pilots at: http://www.usahas.com/bam/
USAF Bird Avoidance model. • Available for use by all pilots.
Bird Strike Myth #4 • Large aircraft are built to withstand all bird strikes.
Bird Strike Myth #4 • Large aircraft are built to withstand all bird strikes. • Large commercial aircraft like passenger jets are certified to be able to continue flying after impacting a 4-lb bird, even if substantial and costly damage occurs and even if one engine has to be shut down.
Bird Strike Myth #4 • 36 species of birds in North America weigh over 4 lbs and most of these large birds travel in flocks.
Bird Strike Myth #4 • About 30% of reported strikes by birds weighing more than 4 lbs to civil aircraft in USA, 1990-2008, involved multiple birds. • Even flocks of small birds (e.g., starlings, blackbirds) and single medium sized birds (e.g., gulls, ducks, hawks) can cause engine failure and substantial damage.
Bird Strike Myth #5 • Myth - If a bird flies into a transport category airplane engine during takeoff and the engine quits, the airplane will crash.
Bird Strike Myth #5 • Transport category aircraft are designed so that if any 1 engine is unable to continue generating thrust, the airplane will have enough power from the remaining engine or engines to safely complete the flight.
Bird Strike Myth #5 • Many birds travel in flocks. • There is always a possibility that birds will be ingested into multiple engines.
Bird Strike Myth #6 • Myth - Nothing can be done to keep birds away from airports.
Bird Strike Myth #6 • Myth - Nothing can be done to keep birds away from airports. • There are a number of effective techniques that can reduce the number of birds in the airport area.
Bird Strike Myth #6 Bird Mitigation techniques fall into three categories: • Make the environment unattractive for birds. • Scare the birds. • Reduce the bird population.
Key Issues in Bird and Wildlife Hazard Reduction Efforts • 90% of bird strikes take place on or around airports, usually while taking off or landing.
Key Issues in Bird and Wildlife Hazard Reduction Efforts • 90% of bird strikes take place on or around airports, usually while taking off or landing. • Ensure that all airports have a valid wildlife management plan.
Key Issues in Bird and Wildlife Hazard Reduction Efforts • Ensure that all airports have personnel properly trained and equipped in wildlife control. • Zero tolerance for any animals large or small on the airport.
Key Issues in Bird and Wildlife Hazard Reduction Efforts • Cover all trash and garbage receptacles. • Ensure the judicious use of wildlife frightening devices.
Key Issues in Bird and Wildlife Hazard Reduction Efforts • Support Zoning of areas near airports to reduce attractants to wildlife. • Promote the reporting of bird and other wildlife strikes to the appropriate national authority.
Bird Strike Control Program • Not only continuously pursue the bird populations but they pose an actual, not perceived, threat to the wildlife. • Work in almost all weather conditions and can travel over all forms of terrain, including following waterfowl into marshes or open water.
Bird Strike Control Program • Do not harm the birds being harassed • Can be used to deter protected species of bird and wildlife. • For this reason, in some states, they are the only acceptable means of deterring protected species.
Border Collies have been bread to heard sheep. Border Collies have been bred to run a hundred miles day and will work for hours on end.
This method, the use of Border Collies to harass birds and wildlife, is rapidly catching on at golf courses and large business facilities across the country
Since adding border collies to McDill Air Force Base runway closures are down by 75 percent.