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Remote Detecting in Accuracy Farming

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  1. Remote Sensing in Precision Agriculture

  2. Remote Sensing • The science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with object, area, or phenomenon under investigation.

  3. Remote Sensing can divide into four stages or division based on altitude of the sensor. • Remote Sensing can divide into four stages or division based on altitude of the sensor. • Ground Observation - approximately 0 - 50 ft. • Low Altitude Airplane - <10,000 ft • High Altitude Airplane - > 10,000 ft • Satellite > 150 miles

  4. Advantages of Ground Level Sensors • Lowest per unit cost • With a self-contained light source, complete control over incident light which simplifies calibration and correction. • Ability to collect data at any time. • Potential for very high resolution data collection.

  5. Data can be easily georeferenced for use in a GIS .

  6. Disadvantages of Ground Level Sensing • Relatively high costs to scan large areas unless part of another field operation. • Cannot simultaneously scan entire fields.

  7. 700.00 0.70 600.00 0.65 0.60 500.00 0.55 0.50 0.45 400.00 0.40 0.35 300.00 0.30 0.25 200.00 0.20 0.15 100.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 Turf Scanned with OSU Sensor

  8. Possible Configuration of a Sensor/Applicator

  9. Experimental OSU Sensor with GPS Mounted on an ATV

  10. 40 ac of Wheat Pasture Center Scanned with ATV

  11. Interpolated Surface from ATV Scanned Data

  12. Noble Foundation - Pepsi Field ATV Sensor Scan

  13. Noble Foundation Pepsi Field NDVI Fixed Interval Scale

  14. Noble Foundation Pepsi Field NDVI - Natural Breaks Scale

  15. Advantages of Aerial Remote Sensing • Can quickly scan large area. • Cost/ac when scanning large areas is relatively low. • Data can be collected at high resolution < 1m.

  16. Disadvantages of Aerial Remote Sensing • Images must be rectified and georeferenced. • Cost to scan small areas is high. • Data can’t be collected at night or in bad weather. • Calibration must be performed on the images.

  17. Methods of Optical Sensing • Photographic • Digital Imaging

  18. NDVI of OSU Experiment Station 1m Resolution

  19. Detail of Southwest Corner

  20. False Color Image Noble Foundation Red River Ranch

  21. Corn at Shelton, NE NDVI Late Sept. 1997

  22. 3/25/98 Wheat Pasture Center 1-m Resolution NDVI Image

  23. 4/23/98 Wheat Pasture Center 1-m Resolution NDVI Image

  24. False Color (green, red, NIR) Image < 1 m Resolution - Raw Radiometric Data(Courtesy F. Schiebe)

  25. False Color (green, red, NIR) Image < 1 m Resolution – Reflectance Corrected Radiometric Data (Courtesy F. Schiebe)

  26. Gray Scale Image < 1 m Resolution – Reflectance Corrected NDVI (Courtesy F. Schiebe)

  27. Reflectance Corrected Gray Scale Image < 1 m Resolution – Green to Near Infrafed Ratio(Courtesy F. Schiebe)

  28. Advantage of Satellite Sensing • Historical data are readily available. • Cost/ac of large area images is vary low. • Very large areas can be scanned near instantaneously. • Data for radiometric bands up to 16 micro meters are available.

  29. Disadvantages of Satellite Sensing • Resolution is lower than other sources. • Cannot control when an area is scanned, e.g. each area is scanned every 16 to 26 days. • Correction of radiometric data because of atmospheric interference is challenging.

  30. Remote Sensing System Measures of Performance • Spatial Resolution • Spectral Response • Spectral Resolution • Frequency of Coverage

  31. Landsat Satellite Program • United States NASA satellites • Images from Landsat 5 available from Space Imaging Corporation - www.spaceimaging.com (formerly EOSAT • Images from Landsat 7 available from USGS, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

  32. Landsat Satellites • Landsat Scene 185 km x 185 km • TM quantatization Range 256 (8 bits) • 16 day repeat cycle per satellite • Currently only one satellite is operational • Satellite crosses the equator at 9:45 local time (North to South Pass)

  33. Sensor Used on Current Landsat Satellites

  34. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)

  35. TM Spectral Bands

  36. Landsat TM Bands

  37. Landsat TM Bands

  38. TM Image North Central Oklahoma April, 1998

  39. April 23,1998 TM Scene over North Central Oklahoma

  40. Systeme Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT) • Orbit repeats every 26 days • 60 km wide field-of-view per camera or 117 km field of view with both units • Quantatization Range 256 (8 bits) • Images available through www.spot.com

  41. Systeme Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT)

  42. SPOT XS image

  43. SPOT Pan image

  44. Indian Research SatelliteIRS - LISS 3 Satellites • 23 m Resolution 4 bands • 5 m Resolution - Panchromatic • 142 by 145 km Image Size • 24 day repeat cycle • Images available through Spaceimaging at www.spaceimaging.com

  45. IRS-LISS

  46. IKONIS • Resolution • 4 m multispectral • 1 m Panchromatic • Scene size is approximately 7 miles by 7 miles • Scenes are available from Space Imaging • Farm size images marketed by Earthscan Network, a subsidiary of DTN

  47. IKONOS

  48. Steps to Utilize Remote Sensed Data (modified from JD text • Collect data • Process image data (rectification, radiometric correction, and georeferencing) • Examine image and analyze statistical data • Perform ground truthing of remote-sensed data

  49. Steps to Utilize Remote Sensed Data (modified from JD text • Incorporate remote sensed and ground truth data into a GIS • Develop calibration equations for remote sensed data • Identify cause-effect relationships among measured variables and crop conditions • Treat regions in fields (management zones) based on information generated