Muslim Women in History • Scholars and Muhaddithat • Worshippers and Mystics • Orators and Preachers • Warriors • Benefactors • Women of General Excellence • Poetesses and Women of Eloquence • Many Women of Political Acumen
Some Generalizations About Women in the Prophetic Age • Critical Consciousness • Counselors • Women and the Hijaab • Women at Work • Facility of Movement • Women and Dynamic Participation • Rich, Mature, Helpful, Honorable Lives • Knowledgeable
KHADIJAH: THE ARCHETYPE • Family and Character • Wealth and Status • The First of the Believers • Esteemed Counselor
Famous Companion Women • Sumayya - first martyr of Islam • Umm Aiman Barakah • Umm Salamah • Fatima • Samra bint Nuhayk al Asadiyya - market inspector • Ash Shifa bint Abdullah - skilled in medicine public administration - Umar appoints her wali of administration of the marketplace • Too many!
WARRIOR WOMEN • Took part in battles by carrying water, nursing wounded, some also fought! • Safiyya bint Abdul Muttalib, ras saw aunt killed a spy with a tent pole • Khaibar & Umayyah bint Qais & the women of Banu Ghifaar • The Yarmuk contingent • Azdah bint al Harith: Heroine of Battle of Maisaan - banners made out of headscarves to reinforce the army! • THE BLACK KNIGHT: Khawlah bint al-Azwar
Nusaibah bint Ka’b al-Ansariyah • Al-’Aqabah • The Battle of Uhud • The Prophet’s Praise - ‘I did not turn right or left in the Battle of Uhud but that I saw her fighting near me.’ • Her Wounds • Later Events: Ridwaan & Yamaamah
Muslim Women and Hadith • Women An Essential Element From the Beginning to the End • Bearing the Light of ‘A’ishah • Transmitters of Hadith & Scholars of Hadith • Transmitters = Raawiyaat • From the Prophetic Period till the Compilations • Scholars = Muhaddithaat • From the Compilations till the modern age
Aishah: The Greatest Woman of Her Age • ‘A’ishah’s Breadth • ‘A’ishah the Scholar of Law • ‘A’ishah the Giver of Fatwaas [Independent Rulings] • Transmitter of Hadith Among The Six Transmitters of 1000 (Aishah 2210) • ‘A’ishah as Educator and Public Speaker • ‘A’ishah Teacher of a Nation • The Seven Fuqahaa of Madinah [Maalik] • ‘A’ishah Unmatched in Eloquence and Oratory • Whenever we Companions of the Prophet encountered any difficulty in the matter of any hadith we referred it to Aishah and found that she had definite knowledge about it. (Abu Musa al-Ash'ar)
Women of Power: • The number of women who were politically prominent are well over a hundred: Umayyads, Abbasids, Turks, Persians, Mongols, Indians, and others. • Shajar ad-Durr - Sultana est control over Egypt, led resistance against 7th Crusade, captures leader St. Louis • Shaghab - ruled Abbasid empire for a time, helped public audiences, governors and judges reported to her • Radiyah Begum - ruled Delhi took firm control of the gov’t., did justice, led her armies and was famed for fair dealing. • Two Rulers in Modern Times: Sakandar Begum took authority in the principality of Bhopal in Central India- Great pilgrimage 1863 daughter ruled until 1901 • Contemporary times
Al Udar al-Karimah Shihaab ad Din Salaah • Died 762 H / 1360 CE - VICEGERENT QUEEN OF YAMAN • Lordly Lady of Piety, Goodness, Sharp Intelligence, Decisive Resolve, Calm Forbearance, & Supreme Political Acumen • Patroness of Scholars and Upright Men of Religious Piety • Champion of the Poor and Needy: She would go secretly from house to house of the poor, seeking to learn their needs and giving them Generous Gifts • She built great schools and mosques in Zabid, Ta’izz, and throughout the land • In the 14 Months of Her Son’s Absence (Jihad to protect the Egypt): • She Established Internal Security in Yaman • She Established Administrative Order • She Established JUSTICE throughout the land • She Did Remarkable Good by way of Charity
Famous Women Benefactors in Islam • Mosque endowments, Great School Builders, Stipulations and Trusts • Turkaan Khatuun 487 / 1094, wife of Malik Shah • Radiyah Begum of the Dehli Sultanate • Nur Jehan & Jehangir - The Coinage, Helping the People, Hindu Reform • Saint of Fez: Fatimah al-Fihriyah d. 265/ 880 • Her Family and Inheritance, The Qarawiyiin Mosque Project • Al Andalus mosque in Fez built by sister • Banafshaa’ ar-Rumiyah d. 399 / 1008: • Restorer of a City Renovating Baghdad • Her Own School and Endowment, Her Special Zakat al-Fitr
Zubaidah bt Ja'far b al-Mansur d. 216/831 Wealthiest and most powerful woman in the world of her time. • Wife of Harun ar-Rashid • Benefactor of political acumen and standing. • Noble woman. Great wealth. Generosity. Munificence. • Great Intellect and profound opinions. • Eloquent master of Arabic • Builder of cities and Civilization • Makkah’s Water Supply • The Pilgrimage Route • Patroness of Writers, Poets, and Physicians - even Christians, the poor the needy, religious scholars and men of piety
Famous Women of Knowledge in Islam • Law and General Islamic Sciences • The Legacy of the Prophet’s Wives and Companions • Rabi'ah Bint Mu'awwad - great scholar of fiqh, taught ntellectual scholars of Madina • Umm 'Atiyyah - sahabah and learned scholars among the tabi'een used to come to her to learn various aspects of Islamic jurisprudence, narrated many ahadith. • A'isha bint Sa'd bint ibn Abi Waqqas - daughter of great Sahabi. She was very learned in Islamic sciences to the point that Imam Malik, Hakim ibn Utaybah and Ayyub as Sakhtiyani, the famous jurists and scholars of ahadith were her pupils. • Sayyida Nafisa: Granddaughter of Hasan - A large number of pupils came to her from different places to learn from her. Imam Shafi'i was one of her pupils. • Fatima bint Qays - discussed a juristic point with 'Umar and 'A'isha. Imam Nawawi said, "She was one of those who migrated in the early days, and possessed great intellect and excellence.” • Hafsa bint Sirin - sister of M. Sirin. Memorized Quran at 12, read 1/2 Quran each night. Prayed and fasted incessantly.
Famous Muslim Women Poetess • Walladah bint Mustakfi (c. 1001-1080 C.E.) - daughter of the caliph of Cordoba in Islamic Spain. Cordoba was a tolerant, multicultural society, famous for its many libraries and sophisticated literary life, in which women were often scholars. After her father's death, Walladah inherited enough wealth to guarantee her independence. She was well known as a poet and hosted literary gatherings for both men and women. • Nana Asma’u, Maryam bint Sh. Uthman dan Fodio - poems and compendiums on legal commentaries
Rabia al Adawiya al Qadsiyya • Named rabia 4th girl, orphan, slavery, freed, known as Rabia of Basra • Retreated to desert for life of worship • Led a life of poverty and rejected rich marriage offers • Many famous ppl came to learn from her including Hasan al Basri • Rabi'a is probably best known for her emphasis on unselfish love for Allah (swt): loving Allah (swt) only for His sake, and not for fear of punishment or desire of reward. She prayed: • "O Allah! If I worship You for fear of Hell, burn me in Hell, and if I worship You in hope of Paradise, exclude me from Paradise. But if I worship You for Your Own sake, grudge me not Your everlasting Beauty. "
The Critical Consciousness of the Companion Women • What made them amazing? • Women are the full sisters of men • Full Social and Political Participation • Work in and outside the Home • Social Contributions • Social and Societal Maturity • Education: Obtained Ijazas, attended study circles, taught others, est. institutions
Quranic Women • Hawwa - not to blame • Maryam - Quranic ideal • Bilqis - queen of sheeba - consulted advisors, ruled her kingdom, passes judgements, leads her ppl to Islam • Asiyaa wife of Firawn, saves Musa • Wife of Aziz, Ibrahim, Lut • Response to women - Mujadilah
Contemporary Heroines • Zaynab al Ghazali - Return of the Pharoah • Maryum Jameelah -prolific author, corresponded with Maududi • Khadijah Haffajee • Shahina Siddiqui • Ingrid Mattson • Maha Genaidi • ...
Conclusions • Finding the balance • Searching Out the Real Picture • Our Need of a Definitive View • Himaar Miskeen :) - moral for Muslim women of today