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A Workshop for Vocabulary Direction

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  1. A Workshop for Vocabulary Instruction Presenter: Amy Benjamin Manalapan-Englishtown Regional Schools The slides in today’s presentation are available at www.amybenjamin.com (click on “recent presentations”) TOPICS: • Vocabulary instruction that improves reading comprehension and writing ability

  2. Goals for Today: (Vocab) Alternatives to vocab book: “boring”; “out of context” Vocabulary to improve reading comprehension Relevance to students’ everyday lives Retention and use (as opposed to mem & regurge) Standardized test performance, esp. with words in isolation Learning how to learn words

  3. Current Practice: How are weteaching vocabulary? What words do we select to teach explicitly? How do we teach the words? (How do we introduce them? explain them? get students to engage with them? manipulate them? reinforce them? How do we assess our students’ vocabulary knowledge and growth? What would be the ideal?

  4. Best Practices in Vocabulary Instruction: Depth of processing: Multiple exposures Multiple meanings Multiple contexts Multiple forms of a word Opportunity to communicate Purposeful repetition Treating phrases as words Verbal and Nonverbal processing

  5. “Information Closet”

  6. Of Limited Value… Lists alone Context alone Definitions alone Dictionaries and Glossaries alone Of Durable Value… Words in clusters Multiple exposures in various contexts Chances to speak, hear, write the words Manipulation of forms of words Classify and categorize word lists Word games

  7. What do we know when we know a word? Definition Spelling Grammatical application (how to use it in a sentence) Components: prefix, root, suffix Synonyms Morphology (other forms that the word can take) Other words that are related to it (having same root) Connotation (positive, negative, neutral) Register (formal or informal) Collocations (words that tend to go with it) Lesser-used definitions

  8. Tier II Words Tier III Words Tier I Words: Domain-specific terminology; “Glossary” words On-the-job words Language of academics, business, government “Vocab List” words Everyday Language: Ask Dead Name Find out; figure out Answer Rain Use Sharp Get Take apart and put together balance Photosynthesis Cytoplasm Metamorphosis Asymmetrical Bathysphere Rhetoric Deoxyribonucleic acid Artifact Habeas corpus Diaspora Polysyndeton Adjective Interrogate Deceased Designate; designation; identify, identification Ascertain; determine Precipitate, precipitation Utilize; employ Acute Acquire Analyze; synthesize equilibrium x chr___ ___ic ph __y__ ___sis Code-switching Prefix/root/suffix

  9. High-Incidence Academic Word List (AWL) 570 words Comprise 10% of the words in academic discourse Are outside of the 2,000-3,000 words that are necessary for basic social communication in English CALP: Cognitive Academic Linguistic Proficiency 570 words on the AWL 2,000-3,000 words for basic social communication BIC: Basic Interpersonal Communication

  10. AWL is arranged in 10 sublists, in order of frequency 65% of the words on the AWL have Latin/Greek word components The words on the AWL can be used to form about 3,000 words (by adding prefixes and suffixes)

  11. Core Words intermittent transmit admit commit remit submit missive admissible submissive commission mission permission INTERMITTENT REFLECT SUBTRACT COMPLIANCE CORRESPONDENT PROPELLER TRANSPORTATION DESTRUCTIVE PERSPECTIVE

  12. Target Word: Vocabulary Chart: Glossary Definition: Visual: Draw or find a picture: My guess: Definition in my own words: Complete sentence of at least ____words: Must contain an action verb and a visual image.

  13. Morphology Chart

  14. Morphology Kit Adverb-making suffix: -ly

  15. Word Components: Level 1 (usually known in elementary grades) Prefixes ex- pre- re- un- dis- non- im- mis- mini- maxi-

  16. Word Components: Level 2 (usually known in intermediate grades) Prefixes co-; con-; com- syn-; sym- in-; en- (into) sub-; sup- e- a-; ab- inter- intra- mono- uni- bi-; tri-; quad-, etc. cent-; milli-; mega- poly-; multi- omni- trans- semi- bio-; geo-; eco-

  17. Word Components: Level 3 (usually known in high school) Prefixes pseudo- demi- endo-; ecto- pro- per- peri- hemi- ob- bene- mal- photo- nom- ig- muni- contra- philo-

  18. Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects: Basic: -ject (to throw) -port (to carry) -scrip, scribe (to write) -vert, vers (to turn) -pos, pon (to place) -tract (to draw) -pel, pul (to drive) -struct (to build) -grad, gress (to step) -plic, plex (to fold) -flic, flex (to bend) -fic, fac (to make) -miss, mit (to send) -sid, sed (to sit) -spec (to see) -voc (to call) -dict (to say) -rupt (to break) Often combine with: sub- re- pro- ex- ob- per- de- a-; ab- co- con- e- trans- ex- Often end with: -ive -ation; sion -ate -able; ible -or

  19. Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects: Advanced: -cad, -cas,-cid (to fall) -dyna (force; power) -magn (great; large) -quir, -quis (to seek) -gen (race, kind origin) -cham, -cam (vault) -cen (to judge) -doc, -dox (to think) -greg (to flock) -cau (to burn) -ess, -sent (to exist) -close, -clud, -clus (to close) -mand, -mend (to order) -junct (to join) -jur, -jus (to swear) -lith (stone) Often combine with: sub- re- pro- ex- ob- per- de- a-; ab- ne- con- e- trans- ex- Often end with: -ive -ation; sion -ate -able; ible -or -ize -ence, ance -ary

  20. <Slide 13: Print as full page> Word Components Chart I Write the words that you’ve heard of that would logically fill in the chart: (Note: Not all the blanks should be filled in.)

  21. Word Components Chart II <Slide 14: Print as full page> Write the words that you’ve heard of that would logically fill in the chart. (Note: Not all of the blanks should be filled in.)

  22. Word Components Chart II <Slide 14: Print as full page> Write the words that you’ve heard of that would logically fill in the chart. (Note: Not all of the blanks should be filled in.)

  23. Strength Training: Vocabulary • Here are a few things you can do that will take just a few minute of class time to • build your students’ vocabulary: • Analyze word prefixes and roots of key words to show how they are related • to words that students may already know. • 2. Embed the target word in a cluster of words related to the topic. • 3. Introduce key words that the students will meet in their upcoming readings. • Repeat new words in various contexts. • 5. Show the word. Emphasize its spelling and how it looks like related words. • 6. Give students opportunities to use new words in conversation. • 7. If you can, make connections between new words and words in other languages. • 8. Give students opportunities to use new words in informal writing. • 9. Indulge in word games and crossword puzzles to reinforce new word. • 10. Give students opportunities to use non-verbal ways to express meanings • (drawing, gestures, skits, charades).

  24. RE DUCE Four words: reduce, revoke produce, provoke PRO VOKE Word Components: Flip-a-Chip Model: Students are shown two chips having prefixes and two other chips having roots. Any combination of these chips (prefix + root) will produce a word. Then, given a cloze paragraph, students supply the appropriate word. Example: Mrs. Benjamin was vexed. “My students,” she declared_______ me when they are late to class. They_________one excuse after another. I want to ________ the number of lateness to class, so I’ll _______ the privilege of using the lavatory pass to any student who arrives late.” Mountain, Lee. “Flip-a-chip to Build Vocabulary. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 46:1. September 2002.

  25. Word Components: Flip-a-Chip Interplay replay Interject reject root Contract extract Contend extend Prefix Prefix root undo redo unwind rewind Project progress Reject regress Play: Each pair of students is given a baggie, two chips (formed from the bottom of a dixie cup) markers, and an index card. Given a list of prefixes and roots, students come up with two prefixes and two roots that will combine to form four words with every prefix + root combination. Students then write a paragraph on the index card, leaving blanks for the four words. Students then put the chips and index cards (with their name on the back) on the baggie and pass along to another pair.

  26. president resident preview review compel, repel comport, report universe inverse uniform inform subtract, detract subject, deject receive perceive retain pertain dismiss remiss distort retort distract, extract dispel, expel absolve resolve abject reject suppose expose support export pretend, intend prevent, invent prescription description preceive deceive transmit submit transcribe subscribe comply, imply comport, import retract, attract retain attain commit permit complex perplex obtain detain obstruct destruct reflect deflect renounce denounce contract attract contain attain

  27. “The Ransom of Red Chief” Typical vocabulary list of words extracted from literature: bellowing cauterized depredation extortion forlorn impudent palatable precipice proclivities ransom reconnoiter seedy somnolent spendthrift sylvan • Frequency outside of the story • Importance in understanding this story • Leverage to learn related words • Individual student’s curiosity and proximity

  28. Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects: Basic: -ject (to throw) -port (to carry) -scrip, scribe (to write) -vert, vers (to turn) -pos, pon (to place) -tract (to draw) -pel, pul (to drive) -struct (to build) -grad, gress (to step) -plic, plex (to fold) -flic, flex (to bend) -fic, fac (to make) -miss, mit (to send) -sid, sed (to sit) -spec (to see) -voc (to call) -dict (to say) -rupt (to break) Often combine with: sub- re- pro- ex- ob- per- de- a-; ab- co- con- e- trans- ex- Often end with: -ive -ation; sion -ate -able; ible -or

  29. Common Word Roots for Academic Subjects: Advanced: -cad, -cas,-cid (to fall) -dyna (force; power) -magn (great; large) -quir, -quis (to seek) -gen (race, kind origin) -cham, -cam (vault) -cen (to judge) -doc, -dox (to think) -greg (to flock) -cau (to burn) -ess, -sent (to exist) -close, -clud, -clus (to close) -mand, -mend (to order) -junct (to join) -jur, -jus (to swear) -lith (stone) Often combine with: sub- re- pro- ex- ob- per- de- a-; ab- ne- con- e- trans- ex- Often end with: -ive -ation; sion -ate -able; ible -or -ize -ence, ance -ary

  30. How can students benefit from a vocabulary list? Classify Analyze Morph Synthesize Build Students break words down into prefixes, roots, suffixes (Word Study) Students build words into phrases; phrases into simple sentences; simple sentences into complex sentences Students use their words to generate ideas for a writing piece: Purposes: To inform, To entertain, To persuade, To socialize Students think of ways in which the words on their lists can be classified (sorted, arranged, organized) Students manipulate the words into different parts of speech by adding endings

  31. The Sentence-Making Kit Fold a 5 x 8 index card in half, width-wise: Bicycle: Who or what? What about it? Guess What! They believed that… Yes/no question Stick-on question 4. 1. 2. 3. 5.

  32. The Sentence-Making Kit On the inside of the card: AAAWWUBBIS: although, as, after while, when until because, before if, since If a sentence begins with any of these words, it must have two parts. Place a comma between the two parts if one of these words begins the sentence. These words, plus the comma, may join two sentences. Writers sometimes begin sentences with these words if they are doing so for emphasis. ,and ,but ,so Use as many ACTION VERBS as possible. Flip the switch into formal English: a lot = a great many or a great deal gonna= going to wanna= want to hafta= have to get,got = become, became, receive received, obtain, obtained gotta: must These words will help you give detail in your sentences: Try beginning some of your sentences with these words: Use words and groups of words that answer the ADVERB QUESTIONS: When? Where? Why? How? To what extent? How often? IN FOR ON WITH AT

  33. The Sentence-Making Kit On the back of the card: Substitutions for homophones and spelling problems: their = his there = here they’re = they are your = his you’re = you are its = his it’s = it is; it has woman = man women = men I before E except after C Or when sounded as A As in neighbor or sleigh