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Open Policy: Leadership for Analysis and Change

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  1. Public Policy: Leadership for Analysis and Change National Center for Leadership in Visual Impairment Value Added Seminar

  2. Policy Defined: • “Public policy is the dynamic and value laden process through which a political system handles a public problem. It includes a government’s expressed intentions and official enactments as well as its consistent patterns of activity and inactivity.” (Fowler, 2000)

  3. Organizational Influences • Change • Leadership • Decision Making • The Role of Politics • Finances • Media • Technology • Other Variables

  4. Historical Viewpoints • 1. Policy information • 2. Policy deliberation • 3. Organization of policy support • 4. Authoritative consideration • 5. Policy promulgation • 6. Policy effectuation • Agger, Goldrich & Swanson (1964)

  5. Historical Viewpoints • An educational system is administered within a complex power structure. The typical governing board does not exercise final authority over educational policies. In reality it exercises power only to the extent that it can legitimize its decisions (make them acceptable) in the political system.” -Kimbrough (1964)

  6. Contemporary Views • Case for Change (what is the cost of not changing?) • Vision Clarity (is there a common image and understanding?) • Change Leaders (those with power and authority to legitimize the change) • Individual Commitment (how will the natural resistance to change in developing/implementing new policies be overcome?) • Change Guides (who are the individuals with the responsibilities for guiding the planning and implementation of the change?)

  7. Contemporary Views • Cultural Alignment (to what extent is there a fit between the school or organization’s culture and the values inherent in the change?) • Infrastructure Support (to what extent do the system’s policies, procedures, functions, and structures support the proposed change?) • Environmental Awareness (what factors outside the realm of the proposed change can negatively affect the initiative?) • Implementation Plan (what are the specifics of moving toward the vision: goals and objectives, timelines, personnel assignments, communications procedures, accountability system, etc.?)

  8. Policy Challenges • “A good scientist is a person with original ideas. A good engineer is a person who makes a design that works. There are no prima donnas in engineering.” • -Freeman Dyson • “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.” • -Albert Einstein

  9. Policy Implementation = Change • “I’m increasingly persuaded that schools that go slow and do a little at a time end up doing so little that they succeed only in upsetting everything without accruing the benefits of change.” • (Sizer, 1992)

  10. Policy Implementation = Change • “It is not the pace of change that is the culprit, it is the piecemealness and fragmentation that wears us down.” • (Fullan, 2003)

  11. Policy Implementation = Change • “The significant problems we face cannot be solved by the same level of thinking that created them.” • Albert Einstein

  12. QUIZ Represent the following numerals in symbolic form: 158 206 3749 Translate the following symbolic numbers into numerals:

  13. Quiz Answer Key 158 = 206 = 3749 = = 382 = 1098 = 6724

  14. 0 = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 6 = 7 = 8 = 9 = Instruction Sheet A

  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 = Instruction Sheet B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 =

  16. Policy is not based on research. Policy is based on values. Research challenges us to question; tests us to change. Barbara Keogh, 1992

  17. Due process does not, unfortunately, put more bread on the table; government can set benefits at whatever level it wants. What due process puts on the table is a thick manual of rules designed to ensure uniformity and procedural regularity. Paternalism is replaced with bloodless formalism. People in need get lists of law. --Howard, 1994

  18. Collaboration An unnatural act committed by unconsenting and unwilling adults despite their mutually benefiting goals.

  19. Policy and School Reform • Market-based School Reform • Choice and Competition • Investment Opportunities • Education Management Organizations • Contracting versus Privatization • Standards-based School Reform • State Adopted & Mandated Standards • Implementation and Accountability from Local Districts • Unintended Consequences on Students, Curriculum, Instruction, Organizations

  20. Policy and School Reform • Market-based School Reform • Choice and Competition • Investment Opportunities • Education Management Organizations • Contracting versus Privatization • Standards-based School Reform • State Adopted & Mandated Standards • Implementation and Accountability from Local Districts • Unintended Consequences on Students, Curriculum, Instruction, Organizations

  21. Policy and School Reform • Whole-school Reform • Increasing School Autonomy • Support for School Leaders • National Models (www.aasa.org/Reform/index.htm) • Teacher Education and School Reform • National Network for Educational Renewal • American Council on Education

  22. Strategic Perspectives • “I would have finished this by now, but I had help.” • (H. Rude, 1992) • Single parent of four children ages 8, 3, 3, and 3.

  23. “Sometimes we go slow to go fast.”

  24. Policy is not based on research. Policy is based on values. Research challenges us to question; tests us to change. Barbara Keogh, 1992

  25. Some lessons we’ve learned • 1. Give up the idea that the pace of change will slow down • 2. Coherence making is a never-ending proposition and is everyone’s responsibility • 3. Changing context is the focus • 4. Premature clarity is a dangerous thing

  26. Some lessons we’ve learned • 5. The public’s thirst for transparency is irreversible • 6. You can’t get large-scale reform through bottom-up strategies—beware of the trap • 7. Mobilize the social attractors—moral purpose, quality relationships, quality knowledge • 8. Charismatic leadership is negatively associated with sustainability (Fullan, 2003)

  27. “If you’re not hopelessly confused, you’re out of touch! If you are hopelessly confused, then you have one choice—try stuff.” • Embracing Chaos, 1993