Body Management Skills - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Body Management Skills

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  1. Body Management Skills • Definition • Required to control the body • Agility • Coordination • Balance • Flexibility • How to control body while on apparatus • Develop body management skills Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  2. Body Management Skills • Return activities • Increase movement potential of apparatus • Perform a movement task after apparatus • Reduces time children stand in line waiting for another turn • Increase activity time • Return activities require little supervision • Jumping • Hopping • Skipping • Animal walks Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  3. Body Management Skills • Apparatus safety guidelines • Use tumbling mats • Apparatus carried, not dragged • Students assist with moving apparatus • Activity on apparatus occurs only when directed by teacher • Instruction should precede apparatus activity Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  4. Body Management Skills • Examples • Climbing ropes • Balance beams • Benches • Jumping boxes • Horizontal ladders • Low horizontal bar • Parachutes • Individual mats • Magic ropes • Tug-of-war ropes • Scooters Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  5. Rhythmic Movement Skills • Definition • Basis of music and dance • Expressive movement • All body movements tend to be rhythmic • Particularly appropriate for young children • Early experiences center on functional and creative movement forms • Locomotor skills are inherently rhythmic Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  6. Rhythmic Movement Skills • Types of rhythmic activity • Fundamental rhythms • Creative rhythms • Singing movement songs • Folk dances • Mixers • Aerobic dancing • Square dancing • Rope jumping to music • Musical games • Rhythmic gymnastics Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  7. Rhythmic Movement Skills • Rhythmic accompaniment • Tempo • Speed of the music • Can be constant or show gradual increase or decrease • Beat • Underlying rhythm of the music • Pulse of the music • Even or uneven Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  8. Rhythmic Movement Skills • Rhythmic accompaniment • Meter • Manner in which beats are put together to form a measure of music • Common meters • 2/4 • 3/4 • 4/4 • Accent • Notes that receive more force than others • Usually applied to the first beat Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  9. Rhythmic Movement Skills • Rhythmic accompaniment • Intensity • Loud • Soft • Light • Heavy • Mood • Intensity, human feelings • Happiness • Sadness • Fear Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  10. Rhythmic Movement Skills • Rhythmic accompaniment • Phrase • Natural grouping of measures • Usually eight underlying beats • Patterns • Phrases are put together into patterns • Children learn to recognize when the pattern repeats or changes Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  11. Rhythmic Movement Skills • Teaching rhythms • Avoid formations and partners • Use scatter formation • Forget left-right orientation • Forget clockwise-counterclockwise orientation • Perform a dance once (per session) • Slow down the music Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  12. Rhythmic Movement Skills • Teaching rhythms • Teach like sports • Emphasize practice not perfection • Combine instructions with movement • Tell them all; they forget all • Choose dances that emphasize strong movements • Avoid the phrase “You’re out of step!” Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  13. Gymnastic Skills • Definition • Develop body management skills • No need for apparatus or equipment • Flexibility • Agility • Balance • Strength • Body control • Partner and group activities offer social interaction and cooperation • Positive learning dependent on progression Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  14. Gymnastic Skills • Progression and placement • Use progression to avoid injury and increase skill learning • Progression is divided into developmental levels • Emphasis on enjoyment • Emphasis on exposure and overcoming fear • Perfect technique is less important than developing positive approach behaviors Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  15. Gymnastic Skills • Examples • Developmental Level I • Rolling log • Forward roll • Developmental Level II • Backward roll • Frog handstand • Cartwheel • Developmental Level III • Headstand variations • Cartwheel and round-off Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  16. Gymnastic Skills • Instructional methodology • Normal introductory and fitness activity provide sufficient warm-up • Extra flexibility in wrists, ankles, neck • Effective class management • All children should be active • Perform across mats sideways • Consider station teaching Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  17. Gymnastic Skills • Formations for teaching • Squad • Mats placed in a line • Squads lined up behind mats • Semicircular • Directs attention toward the teacher • U-shape • Mats placed in large U-shape • Offers excellent view for teacher • Demonstration Mat • Mat in central position Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  18. Gymnastic Skills • Safety considerations • Safety is foremost consideration • Plan to avoid harmful situations • Spotting • Safety and injury prevention • Guide performer through stunt • Help support body weight • Probably best to avoid activities that require spotting • Do not force students to participate in inverted balance and tumbling activities Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  19. Gymnastic Skills • Instructional Procedures • Use mats • Partner work • Respect individual differences • Relate new activities to previous activities • Use a standard counting system • When appropriate, have children work in pairs • Shifting of mats is not necessary during instruction Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  20. Relay Skills • Definition • Relays teach • Cooperation • Competition • Sportsmanship • Relays not used for teaching physical skills • Most students are not active • Relays should require low skill level • Test strength • Test quickness • Test balance Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  21. Relay Skills • Relay procedures • Restrict teams to 4 or 5 students • Change teams regularly • Place less skilled students in the middle of the team • Briefly discuss rule infractions • Designate a deceleration zone • De-emphasize winning • Conduct a trial run • Clarify traffic rules Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  22. Relay Skills • Relay examples • Beanbag relays • Lane relays • Lane relays with equipment • Revolving team ball relays • Circle pass relays • Miscellaneous relays • Modified relays Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  23. Personal Challenge Skills • Definition • Offer opportunity to match strength and wits with others • Children who are quick and strong perform well • Give students an opportunity to test themselves • De-emphasize winning • Developmental II and III • Rekindle motivation and change pace Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  24. Personal Challenge Skills • Personal challenge procedures • Emphasize safety • Make instructions explicit • Perform some activities on mats • Determine who starts the contest • Contests should be done with the right side, left side and both sides • Positions can be varied • Develop a rotation system Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  25. Personal Challenge Skills • Personal challenge examples • Hand wrestle • Finger fencing • Touch knees • Palm push • Elbow wrestle • Wand lift • Power pull • Rope tug-of-war Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  26. Game Skills • Definition • Contribute to growth and development • Children experience success and accomplishment • Laboratory where children apply physical skills in game setting • Develop large-muscle groups • Apply strategy and rules • Modify games to match your program Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  27. Game Skills • Evaluating games • Examine worth of games • Physical skills required • Number of participants • Complexity of rules • Amount of strategy involved • Children must have learned requisite skills • Cooperation is necessary • Move from partner, to small group, to team games Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  28. Game Skills • Creating or modifying games • Change distance to run • Change the means of locomotion • Play game with one or more partners • Change method of tagging • Vary goals or restricted areas • Vary the boundaries of the game • Change game formations • Change scoring requirements • Increase number of players • Change rules or penalties of the game Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  29. Game Skills • Teaching games effectively • Put children in formation prior to presenting a new game • Use trial period (no scoring) during first stages of learning a new game • Don not use games that isolate one child • Develop a rotation plan • Assure all children have equal participation • Plan before attempting a new game • Avoid using out of bounds rule with low-organized and sport lead-up games Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

  30. Game Skills • Teaching games effectively • Change the makeup of the teams often and play relatively short games • Use pinnies to identify teams • Use games to teach social skills • Learning to perform skills correctly is more important than game outcome • Use the “rule of three” as a way of simplifying rules Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon