Posses and Social Disorganization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Posses and Social Disorganization

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Posses and Social Disorganization

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  1. Gangs and Social Disorganization

  2. How Ya Doin’? • MCF-Red Wing site visit head count (4/14?) • Papers (4/21) • Arrangements for 2nd midterm exam • In-class Thursday, May 5 OR • 8:00am - 10:00am Tuesday, May 10

  3. next • Thursday – no class! • Spring Break: • Tuesday 3/22 – anomie theory

  4. Gangs, Class, and Delinquency • Criminologists’ perspectives • Thrasher and other definitions • Social structural causes • Gang member’s perspective: Sanyika Shakur’s perspective • Police perspective: Film/Lecture: Sgt Mike Martin: Gangs in Minnesota • How does he define a gang? • What does he think causes gangs? Individual and Societal level causes • What is the “importation hypothesis?”

  5. Social Structural Theories • Contrast with individual or social-psychological theories • Social Disorganization • Anomie and Opportunity • Conflict • Gender-based • “Root” social and cultural causes • Then, Delinquent Careers in the Juvenile Justice System

  6. Social Disorganization Theory • Background • Race, ethnicity, and “Born Criminals” • Clifford Shaw & Henry McKay (1942) : a sharp rebuke to racist stereotypes • Assumptions • Delinquency due to breakdown of community institutional controls • Normative consensus • Disorganization is caused by rapid social change (industrialization, urbanization, immigration) • Social disorganization leads to self-perpetuating criminal values and traditions

  7. Social Disorganization • Conceptual Tools • Social disorganization • Ethnic succession • Cultural transmission of delinquent traditions • Methods • Maps! Descriptive statistics • Life histories • Critique • Ecological stability • Ethnic groups do not intermingle • Measurement: “disorganization” = crime

  8. Shaw

  9. SIMPLIFIED SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION DIAGRAM • Social Change • Industrialization • Urbanization • Immigration • [tie to poverty, • mobility, • heterogeneity] Weakened institutional & informal social controls Development of spontaneous play groups and gangs Cultural Transmission of delinquent traditions High delinquency rates

  10. policy and extensions • Policy Implications: Chicago Area Projects • Recreation, neighborhood health and sanitation, indigenous gang workers • No evaluation data • Replications • Boston Midcity project (no effect) • “moving to opportunity” experiment today shows some promise in reducing violent crime • Extensions: Robert Sampson and “Neighborhood Collective Efficacy” • Survey measures of neighborhood cohesion and informal social controls • Videotaping physical and social disorder

  11. Extensions: Robert Sampson • “Collective Efficacy” of neighborhoods • Survey for neighborhood cohesion and informal social controls • Videotaping physical and social disorder • Neighborhoods that can realize their own values have lower crime rates