Strana et Illicita abnormal and unlawful - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

strana et illicita senatorial decree 35 ce l.
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Strana et Illicita abnormal and unlawful

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  1. Strana et Illicita- Senatorial Decree, 35 CE History, Christianity and the Transformation of the Classical World 100 BCE – 100 CE

  2. A. Century of Turmoil Social Wars 91 BCEoptimates v. populares Spartacan Revolt 73 BCE New Men in power 59 BCE- 1st Triumvirate Crassus, Pompey, Caesar

  3. B. Crossing the Rubicon • Julius Caesar d. 44 BCE- Gallic conquests • & Cleopatra- Ptolemies

  4. C. The end of the Republic 1. Second Triumvirate 42 BCE - Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus - Battle of Actium 31 BCE

  5. Age of the Emperors Octavian changes name to Caesar Augustus “Invisible Monarchy” Senate remains, but republic is lost

  6. D. The Roman Soul in Crisis • Mystery Cults- secret rituals- required initiation- ecstatic response / presence of god- eternal life • Monotheism? Gaia – “Mother Earth” Cicero106-43 BCEStoicism – duty to one’s role divine providence

  7. II. Early Christianity & the Classical World

  8. A. Traditions in conflict Judah the Maccabee Hasmoneans 165-63 BCE- Hebrews v. Hellenism- cosmopolitan v. traditionalist Seleucid Kingdom

  9. B. Hebrew Resistance to Rome • Pompey & the Pirates • Judea 63 BCE Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem

  10. 3. Division- Sadducees qualified interaction written law- Hasidim cultural purity Pharisees prophetic visions life after death Hillel the Elder “Golden Rule” Zealots (6 CE)

  11. 4. Grassroots fervor - John the Baptist “generation of vipers!” Critic of Hebrew leaders

  12. C. Joshua ben Joseph ca. 6-30 CE • Populist- Jewish tradition- miracle worker Messiah (?)

  13. Progressive - Sermon on the Mount [Matthew] - appeal to/for the powerless, despised “spirit of the law”

  14. III. From Cult to Institution

  15. A. The Cult of Christ • Maintained cult as Jewish sect - circumcision; Torah - conversion to Judaism - baptism; eucharist James

  16. Messiah?- Again with the Gentiles - stumbling block: the crucifixion • We’re not with them- Roman / Hebrew War, 66-73 CE- Gospels: blame the Jews Masada

  17. Pagans for Jesus- mythologyOsiris, Tammuz, Dionysus, Horus - women & slaves - the End is near (look busy) 5. Appeal and threat - Decius r. 249-251

  18. B. Paul of Tarsus 5-67 CE • Paul’s vision - completion of Jewish history - scripturally based: “Old” (Hellenized Jews) “New” Testament Gospels (second-hand)Epistles (letters of instruction)Acts (Church history)Revelation (crisis literature)

  19. Break from Hebrew tradition - salvation was gift (grace) - salvation open to non-Jews - salvation dependent on faith, membership, & ritual MYSTERY CULT

  20. Hierarchy - patriarchates - bishops; presbyters; deacons/deaconesses - ecclesiae Roman model Limited role of women (1 Corinthians)- subordinate to Church- subordinate to husbands

  21. Roll call of the damned – 1 Corinthians - creation of the “other”- paganism; fornicators (homosexuality ?) - Roman decline - echo of Augustus emphasized Greco-Roman concept of jurisprudence - spirit and letter of the law

  22. Salvation always in peril – the Devil - Zoroastrianism Ahura Mazda – singular; all goodevil exists independently - demons n’stuff - problems of perfection

  23. Paul organized early Christianity and made it appealing to a wide array of people... …but it was Roman oppression that gave Christians an added sense of identity through shared hardship

  24. IV. Rome in the Augustan Age

  25. Why an Emperor? • [Rhetorical] defense of Republican virtues • Reform / civic peace • The Pax Romana31 BCE - 192 CE

  26. A. Invisible monarchy • What’s in a name? - Consul, Augustus 27 BCE, Governor - Imperium Maius, imperator - princeps civitatus • Reform the Senate 3. Build Equestrian class

  27. B. Army reform • Addition by subtraction - 60 to 28 legions - dispersal - Praetorian Guard

  28. 2. The Legionnaires - standing army / navy - long tours - chance for promotion - veterans benefits • The Auxiliaries - chance for citizenship Army was a crucial instrument in spreading influence

  29. C. Make the world “Rome” Little Romes - fusion of cultures - loyal patricians - bureaucracy

  30. D. Moral Regeneration • The “family values” Emperor - tax breaks for kids - stiff penalties for adultery, the unmarried “virtue” 2. Pontifexmaximus - “Cult of the Genius of the Emperor” What links the Empire together?