The Roman Legacy The Art of Ancient Rome Chapter 4 (Culture and Values)
Timeline – Ancient Rome c 753 B.C – Founding of city (town) of Rome c 700 B.C. - Development of Etruscan culture 616 – 510 B.C – Etruscan Occupation of Rome 509 – 31 B.C. – Republican Rome 146 B.C Romans capture city of Corinth, Greece becomes Roman province 58-56 B.C. - Caesar conquers Gaul c. 27 B.C.- A.D. - 14 Horace, Odes and Ars Poetica; Vergil, Aeneid; Ovid, Metamorphoses 31 B.C. – 476 A.D – Imperial Rome 44 B.C Julius Caesar assassinated 79 - Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum c. 126 - Pantheon, Rome 300-305 - Diocletian's Palace, Split 306-315 - Basilica of Constantine, Rome 476 – Deposition of final Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustulus – End of Empire
Primary sources of Roman culture were the Greeks and the Etruscans. • The Etruscans built large burial yards called necropolises. • They used the arch in their building projects. • The Etruscan Apollo combines these two sensibilities: • a. Archaic smile • b. Greek dress • c. more dynamic than Kouroi (pl of Kouros)
The Etruscan Apollo Apollo of Veiic. 515 - 490 BC, painted terracotta, 5'11 h Terracotta was used extensively for sculpture. This Apollo originally decorated the roof of a temple It was part of a sculptural group depicting one of the labors of Hercules, he was struggling with Hercules for possession of the Cerynian Stag.The sculpture shows strong Archaic Greek influence – (compare with kouros figures)Apollo very actively steps forward, but he has a great Archaic smile and facial features similar to the kouroi. However Apollo is clothed and made of terracotta, not marble.Also he is very energetic as he strides forward compared to the more static kouroi
Etruscan Necropolis (City of the Dead) The geometric layout of These "Cities for the Dead" Provides an excellent opportunity for the study of ancient urban planning Methods. Crosifisso del Tufu, Necropolis at Orvieto 6th – 3rd centuries B.C.
This Etruscan tomb dates from the mid 6th century BC to the 3rd century. It consists of several burial chambers situated among sepulchral roads where the name of the dead is etched in stone (unquestionably final) at the entrance of the tomb.(Family Name Written From Right to Left)
Etruscan tomb Interior
Roman Philosophy Epicureanism Epicurus (Late Hellenistic Greek Philosopher 341 – 271 B.C.) developed an unsparingly materialistic metaphysics, empiricist epistemology, and hedonistic ethics. Epicurus taught that the basic constituents of the world are atoms, uncuttable bits of matter, flying through empty space, and he tried to explain all natural phenomena in atomic terms. Epicurus rejected the existence of Platonic forms and an immaterial soul, and he said that the gods have no influence on our lives. Epicurus also thought skepticism was untenable, and that we could gain knowledge of the world relying upon the senses. He taught that the point of all one's actions was to attain pleasure (conceived of as tranquility) for oneself, and that this could be done by limiting one's desires and by banishing the fear of the gods and of death. Epicurus' gospel of freedom from fear proved to be quite popular, and communities of Epicureans flourished for centuries after his death. Lucretius (99 – 55 B.C), main proponent of Epicureanism among the Romans. Emphasized the supremacy of rationalism and that the gods polayed no part in human affairs. Proponent of complete freedom.
Roman Philosophy Stoicism Stoicism was one of the new philosophical movements of the Greek Hellenistic period. The name derives from the porch (stoa poikilê) in the Agora at Athens decorated with mural paintings, where the members of the school congregated, and their lectures were held. Unlike ‘epicurean,’ the sense of the English adjective ‘stoical’ is not utterly misleading with regard to its philosophical origins. The Stoics did, in fact, hold that emotions like fear or envy (or impassioned sexual attachments, or passionate love of anything whatsoever) either were, or arose from, false judgements and that the sage--a person who had attained moral and intellectual perfection--would not undergo them. The later Stoics of Roman Imperial times, Seneca and Epictetus, emphasize the doctrines (already central to the early Stoics' teachings) that the sage is utterly immune to misfortune and that virtue is sufficient for happiness. Our phrase ‘stoic calm’ perhaps encapsulates the general drift of these claims. It does not, however, hint at the even more radical ethical views which the Stoics defended, e.g. that only the sage is free while all others are slaves, or that all those who are morally vicious are equally so.
Roman Portraiture - Republican Bust of Marcus Tullius Cicero First Century B.C. marble The portraiture of the late Roman Republic demonstrates the mastery of craft to a very high degree. The Roman art of portraiture that combines strong realism with the addition of subtle yet powerful attributes of personality and character is unparalleled. Many of the best Roman portraits serve as revealing psychological documents, expressing fully human qualities. Realistic details, such as the corners of the eyes and mouth, the hollows of the cheeks, or the set of the lips are used to express both outer appearance and inner character. (Later used for political propaganda and PR)
An early type of architecture borrowed • From Greece is the Temple of Portunus; 100 B.C • Unlike Greek temples it is not open on all sides • Was entered from the front only The style represents a merging of both Etruscan and Greek temple styles. Like Greek temples, it has a porch with free-standing columns but has only slender engaged Ionic columns on the sides and back since the cella wall is moved toward the outside. In plan, it is like Etruscan temples, with a clear front and rear facade. On a high podium, it has stairs only on the front facade.
Imperial Rome: 31 B.C – 476 A.D. • The Republic of Rome ended with the assassination of • Julius Caesar and a new era called the “Empire” began. • The Ara Pacis commemorates the peace of the reign of • Augustus. • a. design is Greek but use is Roman • b. allowed the Empire to borrow the ideals of Greece • for their own purposes • Imperial Values and their effect on Roman and Western Culture • Dominant authoritarian worldly power respected above all. • Materialistic world view – roads, architecture, urban planning, plumbing • Strong central control yet allowances for local differences • Political and economic realities rule decisionmaking • Pragmatic, practical philosophy • Roman Law as Basis for Civil Society
Romans developed art that glorified war Built monuments for propagandistic reasons Art and Architecture - tools to ensure and dramatize power Art and Empire
Augustan Age ; 27 B.C. – 14 A.D. The imperator and creator of Pax Romana stands in a contrapposto that echoes the one of classical Greek athletes, such as the Doryphoros of Polykleitos. The cupid on the dolphin at his feet hints at the origin of the gens Julia, namely Venus or Afrodite, the goddess of love. The dolphin itself refers to the naval victory at Actium. Villa of Livia at Primaporta, c. 20 BC The peaceful scene, with its abundance of fruit and flowers, reflects the interests of Augustus as ennunciated by Vergil. Augustus of Primaporta, c. 20 BC
Triumphal Arches: • The Arch of Titus is a solid architectural • reminder of floral and sword arches held • over the heads of returning conquerors • on the roads entering Rome • a. arches were built over roadway • b. generally had relief sculpture recounting • battles and victories • c. at the height of the Empire there were • said to be over 50 in Rome • Ceremonial and Ritualistic reminders of authority • The Arch as a visible symbol of the Empire
Arch of Titus after 81 AD; marble, reliefs; about 7' 10“h Located at the highest point of the Via Sacra which leads to the Roman Forum, this triumphal arch, with only one passageway, commemorates Titus' conquest of Judea which ended the Jewish Wars (66-70). Engaged fluted columns frame the passageway, the spandrels depict Victories in relief, the attic contains an inscription and the internal faces of the passageway depict in relief triumphal processions. The arch was erected posthumously, after Titus had already become a "god."
Roman Colosseum: 70 – 82 AD • Built on top of Nero’s gardens • Also known as Flavian Ampitheater • Built of concrete with stone facing • Used arches and three different orders of columns • – doric, ionic,corinthian • Held up to 50,000 spectators • Had tunnel vaults underneath • Could be flooded for mock naval battles
Roman Colosseum The Colosseum or Flavian Amphitheater was begun by Vespasian, inaugurated by Titus in 80 A.D. and completed by Domitian. Located on marshy land between the Esquiline and Caelian Hills, it was the first permanent amphitheater to be built in Rome. Its monumental size and grandeur as well as its practical and efficient organization for producing spectacles and controlling the large crowds make it one of the great architectural monuments achieved by the ancient Romans.
The Roman Pantheon: c. 126 AD • A temple devoted to all the gods. • 142 feet high and same in width • Oculus in roof center open to sky, called the Eye of Jupiter • IEssentially an arch rotated 360 degrees • One of the few buildings from antiquity • to survive intact
"Interior of the Pantheon," painted by Paninni, c.1750.
Roman wall painting • Surviving examples come mostly from • Pompeii and Herculaneum which were • buried in ash and lava in 79 AD • Mural artists used linear perspective and • Modeling of forms with a high degree of • naturalism Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii, 60 B.C
Slow Decline of Rome: • Unwieldy bureaucratic machine • Too many mercenary troops that were disloyal • Power shift from Rome to Constantinople • in 33 AD with invasion of barbarians from north • 330 A.D. Emperor Constantine moved capital to Constantinople • Final barbarian assault – end of empire, 476 A.D. • ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Age of Constantine and Late Roman Period; 330 – 476 A.D. • Decline of Realism • Classical Style Abandoned • Eastern iconoclastic influence • Religious cults of Eastern Origin Head of Constantine 315-330 C. E.marble, head: 8 ½' h
Toward Byzantium On both sides of the Emperor, his officials distribute money to the crowd below. The simplified style, in which most of the puppetlike figures are shown frontally, foreshadows Byzantine and medieval art and is certainly very different from the style of earlier reliefs This movement from realism to simplified stylization reflects the changes in worldview from the Western influences on the Roman culture and the introduction and Assimilation of Christianity and Eastern influence. The Roman Empire becomes the Holy Roman Empire and slowly moves toward Byzantine and medieval culture. Constantine Receiving Homage from the Senate, frieze on the Arch of Constantine, Rome, AD 315, Marble relief