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Absolutism and State-Building

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Absolutism and State-Building

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  1. Absolutism and State-Building • Thomas Hobbes and the theory of Absolutism • France under Louis XIV (1643-1715) • England under the Stuarts (1603-40, 1660-1688)

  2. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan

  3. Absolutism • A 17th-18th century form of gov’t in which the ruler possessed complete and unrivaled power • NOT unlimited or arbitrary power • The power to make laws and the claim that the monarch was above the law • Belief in Divine Right

  4. The Practice of Absolutism • Weakening representative assemblies • Subordinating nobility to monarchy • Building state bureaucracy • Imposing religious and linguistic conformity • Building armies

  5. II. France under Louis XIV (1643-1715) • The Man • His Palace • His Reign • Comparison with Kangxi of China

  6. Louis XIV Receiving Visitors

  7. Versailles

  8. Versailles

  9. Hall of Mirrors

  10. Sun King Emblem

  11. Louis XIV’s Bedroom

  12. C. Louis XIV’s Reign • Religious policy of intolerance - Huguenots, Edict of Nantes (1598) • Social policy of neglect • Foreign policy of war • Economic policy of mercantilism

  13. Mercantilism • A collection of government policies designed to regulate economic commerce for the benefit of the state • Development of colonies and favorable balance of trade

  14. D. Absolutism in China: Kangxi (1654-1722)

  15. III. England under the Stuarts • Differences with France – Magna Carta (1215), Puritanism, economic growth • The Elizabethan Legacy • Stuart Stupidity – James I and Charles I • English Civil War – Oliver Cromwell; Levellers, Diggers, Baptists, Quakers • Restoration – Charles II, James II, and the Test Act • Glorious Revolution – John Locke, Second Treatise of Government (1690) • Global Context

  16. James I • Personal Problems • Economic Problems • Religious Problems • Administrative Problems

  17. Charles I

  18. II. England under the Stuarts • Differences with France – Magna Carta (1215), Puritanism, economic growth • The Elizabethan Legacy • Stuart Stupidity – James I and Charles I • English Civil War – Oliver Cromwell; Levellers, Diggers, Baptists, Quakers • Restoration – Charles II, James II, and the Test Act • Glorious Revolution – John Locke, Second Treatise of Government (1690) • Global Context

  19. Oliver Cromwell

  20. “Oliver Cromwell as King”

  21. Turning the World Upside Down • Levellers – annual meetings for Parliament, paid MP’s, right to vote for all male heads of household • Diggers – communal living and collective ownership of property • Baptists – adult baptism (individual choice) • Quakers – anyone inspired by God can preach, disdain for authority, refusal to swear oaths

  22. II. England under the Stuarts • Differences with France – Magna Carta (1215), Puritanism, economic growth • The Elizabethan Legacy • Stuart Stupidity – James I and Charles I • English Civil War – Oliver Cromwell; Levellers, Diggers, Baptists, Quakers • Restoration – Charles II, James II, and the Test Act • Glorious Revolution – John Locke, Second Treatise of Government (1690) • Global Context

  23. John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690) The great end of men’s entering into society being the enjoyment of their properties in peace and safety, and the great instrument and means of that being the laws established in that society, the first and fundamental positive law of all commonwealths is the establishing of the legislative power…. The legislative is not only the supreme power of the commonwealth, but sacred and unalterable….

  24. What Happened in England? • Great Rebellion • Puritan Revolution • Last of Religious Wars • Liberty against Tyranny • First Bourgeois Revolution • Revolution or Rebellion • Revolution or Civil War

  25. Global Context • “Crisis of the Seventeenth Century” as population growth leads to fiscal crisis, divisions among elites, and popular uprisings • Ottoman Empire, Ming China, Dutch Republic • Emergence of heterodox religious movements, e.g., Sufism, Taizhou School