Contraception and Birth Control Rik Papagolos, RN
Risk and Responsibility(Chapter Outline) • Women Men, and Birth Control: Who Is Responsible? • Think About It the Psychology of Risk Taking • Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’S)
Methods of Contraception and Birth Control(Chapter Outline) • Birth Control and Contraception: • What’s the Difference? • Choosing a Method • Sexual Abstinence and Outercourse • Practically Speaking GUIDELINES FOR CHOOSING A CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD • Hormonal Methods: the Pill and Implants
Methods of Contraception and Birth Control(Chapter Outline) • Think About It : UNRELIABLE AND MYTHICAL • Methods of Contraception • Barrier Methods: the Condom Female Condom, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap • Practically Speaking: HINTS FOR EFFECTIVE CONDOM USE
Methods of Contraception and Birth Control(Chapter Outline) • Spermicidal • The IUD (Intrauterine Device) • Fertility Awareness Methods • Sterilization • Practically Speaking: IS STERILIZATION THE RIGHT CHOICE FOR YOU? • Emergency Contraception
Abortion(Chapter Outline) • Methods of Abortion • A Decline in the Prevalence of Abortion • Women and Abortion • Men and Abortion • The Abortion Debate
Risk and Responsibility • If intercourse occurs the day before ovulation, the chance of pregnancy is about 30%. • If intercourse occurs the day of ovulation, the chance of pregnancy is about 15%. • Over the course of one year, couples who do not use contraception have a 90% chance of pregnancy.
Women Men, and Birth Control: Who Is Responsible? • Traditionally has been the women's responsibility. • Attitudes are changing. • In addition to use of a condom men can help take contraceptive responsibility by.
Women Men, and Birth Control: Who Is Responsible? • 1. Exploring ways of making love without intercourse; • 2. Helping to pay doctor or clinic bills and sharing the cost of pills, implants, or other birth control supplies;
Women Men, and Birth Control: Who Is Responsible? • 3. Checking on supplies, helping to keep track of the woman’s menstrual cycle, and helping his partner with her part in the birth control routine; • 4. In long-term relationships, if no (or no more) children are wanted, having a vasectomy.
Think About It the Psychology of Risk Taking • See Page 312
Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’S) • Most STD’s are treatable if diagnosed early. • AIDS is one exception> AIDS is FATAL. • Some contraceptive methods work to help prevent disease and pregnancy. • Latex and polyurethane condoms provide barrier protection against virus and bacterial infection: such as Herpes virus, chlamydia, gonococcus, and HIV.
Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’S) • Not 100% effective at preventing infection or pregnancy. • Spermicides - Chemicals that kill sperm offer protection against some STD’s, foam or film can provide extra protection. • Use of spermicides with barrier methods increase the effectiveness of both the infection and pregnancy protection of the method.
Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’S) • Two additional chapters in the text cover STD’s in more detail.
Birth Control and Contraception • What is the difference • Birth Control: Preventing birth from taking place • IUD • Emergency contraceptive pills • RU-486 • Surgical Abortion
Birth Control and Contraception • Contraception: Preventing conception (preventing the sperm and the egg from uniting) • Barrier methods • Condoms, diaphragms • Spermicides • Hormonal methods • Pill • Shot (depo) • Implants
Methods of Contraception and Birth Control • Choosing a Method • The best method is the one you will use consistently and correctly • Know the reliability of method • Know the advantages and disadvantages • Side effects • Risks
Methods of Contraception and Birth Control • Abstinence • Choosing not to have intercourse • Outercourse • Sexual activity without penetration
Methods of Contraception and Birth Control • Hormonal Methods • The pill • Implants • Injections
The Pill • Combination of estrogen and progestin (some progestin only) • Inhibits ovulation • Thickens the cervical mucous • Changes the lining of the uterus to inhibit implantation of the fertilized ovum • Alter the rate of ovum transport • 99.5 % effective (if used correctly) 92 %
The Pill Advantages • Easy to use • Dependable • No additional appliances • Can regulate menstrual flow and decrease cramps and other symptoms of menses
The Pill • Problems • Side effects • Changes in menstrual flow • Breast tenderness • Nausea • Vomiting • Wt. gain or loss
The Pill • Contraindications • Heart disease • Kidney disease • Asthma • High blood pressure • Diabetes • Epilepsy • Gall bladder disease • Sickle-cell anemia • Migraine headaches • depression,
The Pill • ACHES • Abdominal pain • Chest pain or shortness of breath • Headaches (severe) • Eye problems (blurred vision, flashing lights and blindness) • Severe leg pain
The Pill • Smoking and the Pill • DO NOT TAKE THE PILL IF YOU SMOKE
Implants • Progestin only (Norplant) • Prevents ovulation • More effective than the Pill
Implant • Advantages • Convenience • Eliminate user error • No menses or very light • Decreased cramping
Problems Difficulty in removing Side effects Similar to the pill Changes in menstrual bleeding Headaches Side effects wt. gain Acne breast tenderness hair growth ovarian cysts Implant
Implant • Contraindications • Liver disease • Breast cancer • Cardiovascular disease • Unexplained vaginal bleeding • Pregnant • Smokers
Injectable Contraceptives • Depo-Provera (DMPA) Progesterone • Can stop menses • Side effects include • Spotting, wt. gain, headaches, breast tenderness, dizziness, loss of libido and depression • Lunelle Progestin and estrogen • Similar to the pill in all aspects
Barrier Methods • The condom • Female condom • Diaphragm • Cervical cap • Sponge
Spermicides • Nonoxynol-9 • Use in combination with barrier methods of contraception • Foam • gel • Film • Creams, jellies and suppositories
IUD • Intrauterine device • Copper and plastic (Copper T-380A) 10 years • Plastic and Progesterone (progestasert IUD) 1 year • 90-96 % effective in use • Increased risk of PID
Fertility Awareness Methods • Calendar or rhythm method • Midway in cycle • Basal body temperature (BBT) method • Increase in body temperature • Cervical Mucous Method • Clear slippery mucous • Symptothermal method • Combination of BBT and Cervical Mucous methods
Sterilization • For Women • Tubal ligations • Cut and seal the fallopian tubes • Hysterectomy • Removal of the uterus • For Men • Vasectomy • Vas deferens are cut and sealed
Emergency Contraception • Emergency Contraception Pill (ECP) • Copper IUD
Abortion • Spontaneous abortion (miscarriages) • Induced abortion
Induced Abortion • Drug induced • Mifepristone (RU-486) • Surgical Methods • Vacuum aspiration • Dilation and evacuation • Hysterectomy • Saline, prostaglandins and urea (after the first trimester)