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Contraception and Birth Control

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  1. Contraception and Birth Control Rik Papagolos, RN

  2. Risk and Responsibility(Chapter Outline) • Women Men, and Birth Control: Who Is Responsible? • Think About It the Psychology of Risk Taking • Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’S)

  3. Methods of Contraception and Birth Control(Chapter Outline) • Birth Control and Contraception: • What’s the Difference? • Choosing a Method • Sexual Abstinence and Outercourse • Practically Speaking GUIDELINES FOR CHOOSING A CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD • Hormonal Methods: the Pill and Implants

  4. Methods of Contraception and Birth Control(Chapter Outline) • Think About It : UNRELIABLE AND MYTHICAL • Methods of Contraception • Barrier Methods: the Condom Female Condom, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap • Practically Speaking: HINTS FOR EFFECTIVE CONDOM USE

  5. Methods of Contraception and Birth Control(Chapter Outline) • Spermicidal • The IUD (Intrauterine Device) • Fertility Awareness Methods • Sterilization • Practically Speaking: IS STERILIZATION THE RIGHT CHOICE FOR YOU? • Emergency Contraception

  6. Abortion(Chapter Outline) • Methods of Abortion • A Decline in the Prevalence of Abortion • Women and Abortion • Men and Abortion • The Abortion Debate

  7. Risk and Responsibility • If intercourse occurs the day before ovulation, the chance of pregnancy is about 30%. • If intercourse occurs the day of ovulation, the chance of pregnancy is about 15%. • Over the course of one year, couples who do not use contraception have a 90% chance of pregnancy.

  8. Women Men, and Birth Control: Who Is Responsible? • Traditionally has been the women's responsibility. • Attitudes are changing. • In addition to use of a condom men can help take contraceptive responsibility by.

  9. Women Men, and Birth Control: Who Is Responsible? • 1. Exploring ways of making love without intercourse; • 2. Helping to pay doctor or clinic bills and sharing the cost of pills, implants, or other birth control supplies;

  10. Women Men, and Birth Control: Who Is Responsible? • 3. Checking on supplies, helping to keep track of the woman’s menstrual cycle, and helping his partner with her part in the birth control routine; • 4. In long-term relationships, if no (or no more) children are wanted, having a vasectomy.

  11. Think About It the Psychology of Risk Taking • See Page 312

  12. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’S) • Most STD’s are treatable if diagnosed early. • AIDS is one exception> AIDS is FATAL. • Some contraceptive methods work to help prevent disease and pregnancy. • Latex and polyurethane condoms provide barrier protection against virus and bacterial infection: such as Herpes virus, chlamydia, gonococcus, and HIV.

  13. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’S) • Not 100% effective at preventing infection or pregnancy. • Spermicides - Chemicals that kill sperm offer protection against some STD’s, foam or film can provide extra protection. • Use of spermicides with barrier methods increase the effectiveness of both the infection and pregnancy protection of the method.

  14. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’S) • Two additional chapters in the text cover STD’s in more detail.

  15. Birth Control and Contraception • What is the difference • Birth Control: Preventing birth from taking place • IUD • Emergency contraceptive pills • RU-486 • Surgical Abortion

  16. Birth Control and Contraception • Contraception: Preventing conception (preventing the sperm and the egg from uniting) • Barrier methods • Condoms, diaphragms • Spermicides • Hormonal methods • Pill • Shot (depo) • Implants

  17. Methods of Contraception and Birth Control • Choosing a Method • The best method is the one you will use consistently and correctly • Know the reliability of method • Know the advantages and disadvantages • Side effects • Risks

  18. Methods of Contraception and Birth Control • Abstinence • Choosing not to have intercourse • Outercourse • Sexual activity without penetration

  19. Methods of Contraception and Birth Control • Hormonal Methods • The pill • Implants • Injections

  20. The Pill • Combination of estrogen and progestin (some progestin only) • Inhibits ovulation • Thickens the cervical mucous • Changes the lining of the uterus to inhibit implantation of the fertilized ovum • Alter the rate of ovum transport • 99.5 % effective (if used correctly) 92 %

  21. The Pill Advantages • Easy to use • Dependable • No additional appliances • Can regulate menstrual flow and decrease cramps and other symptoms of menses

  22. The Pill • Problems • Side effects • Changes in menstrual flow • Breast tenderness • Nausea • Vomiting • Wt. gain or loss

  23. The Pill • Contraindications • Heart disease • Kidney disease • Asthma • High blood pressure • Diabetes • Epilepsy • Gall bladder disease • Sickle-cell anemia • Migraine headaches • depression,

  24. The Pill • ACHES • Abdominal pain • Chest pain or shortness of breath • Headaches (severe) • Eye problems (blurred vision, flashing lights and blindness) • Severe leg pain

  25. The Pill • Smoking and the Pill • DO NOT TAKE THE PILL IF YOU SMOKE

  26. Implants • Progestin only (Norplant) • Prevents ovulation • More effective than the Pill

  27. Implant • Advantages • Convenience • Eliminate user error • No menses or very light • Decreased cramping

  28. Problems Difficulty in removing Side effects Similar to the pill Changes in menstrual bleeding Headaches Side effects wt. gain Acne breast tenderness hair growth ovarian cysts Implant

  29. Implant • Contraindications • Liver disease • Breast cancer • Cardiovascular disease • Unexplained vaginal bleeding • Pregnant • Smokers

  30. Injectable Contraceptives • Depo-Provera (DMPA) Progesterone • Can stop menses • Side effects include • Spotting, wt. gain, headaches, breast tenderness, dizziness, loss of libido and depression • Lunelle Progestin and estrogen • Similar to the pill in all aspects

  31. Barrier Methods • The condom • Female condom • Diaphragm • Cervical cap • Sponge

  32. Spermicides • Nonoxynol-9 • Use in combination with barrier methods of contraception • Foam • gel • Film • Creams, jellies and suppositories

  33. IUD • Intrauterine device • Copper and plastic (Copper T-380A) 10 years • Plastic and Progesterone (progestasert IUD) 1 year • 90-96 % effective in use • Increased risk of PID

  34. Fertility Awareness Methods • Calendar or rhythm method • Midway in cycle • Basal body temperature (BBT) method • Increase in body temperature • Cervical Mucous Method • Clear slippery mucous • Symptothermal method • Combination of BBT and Cervical Mucous methods

  35. Sterilization • For Women • Tubal ligations • Cut and seal the fallopian tubes • Hysterectomy • Removal of the uterus • For Men • Vasectomy • Vas deferens are cut and sealed

  36. Emergency Contraception • Emergency Contraception Pill (ECP) • Copper IUD

  37. Abortion • Spontaneous abortion (miscarriages) • Induced abortion

  38. Induced Abortion • Drug induced • Mifepristone (RU-486) • Surgical Methods • Vacuum aspiration • Dilation and evacuation • Hysterectomy • Saline, prostaglandins and urea (after the first trimester)