Key Concepts The development of refined technique in pursuit of performance improvement. 1. The concept of skill and skilled performance. 2. Skill/technique improvement through mechanical analysis or movement analysis or consideration of quality. 3. The development of skill and the refinement of technique, in terms of: Stages of learning Methods of practice Principles of effective practice Motivation, concentration and feedback
Key Concept 1 Concept of skill and skilled performance.. Key Feature 1 How skills are performed through an information processing model Key Feature 2 How skills are performed for effective, consistent performance. Understanding of classification of skills Key Feature 3 Use of model performance. Key Concept 2 Skill / Technique through mechanical analysis or movement analysis or consideration of quality. Key Feature 1 The purposes of collecting relevant and detailed information about performance. Key Feature 2 Creation of plan using information collected about performance. Key Feature 3 Reviewing and monitoring improvements made through relevant training programmes. Key Concept 3 The development of skill and the refinement of technique. Key Feature 1 The Stages of Learning Key Feature 2 The influential factors in the development of performance Motivation, concentration and feedback Key Feature 3 How skills are learned and require refinement of technique through practice.
To help you understand the terms of skill and technique, it will be useful to refer to the term 'technique' as how you do things and refer to 'skill' as how effectively you use techniques. Each attempt you make at combining a series of movements is called a performance. • The more skillful you are, the better your performance is likely to be. Being aware of the type of skill you are working on, will determine the way you practice and develop the skill. • A skilled performance is about your ability to be in the correct place at the correct time and be able to select the correct technique, making it look as effortless as possible to meet the performance demands
Fundamental Movements • Fundamental Movements: Jumping, Catching, Throwing, Running, Walking • Basis For Development of Other Skills • Learned through other experiences, play in childhood
Ability • Ability is a trait you are born with • Two Types • Perceptual: Related to processing spatial awareness • Motor: Proficiency of movement patterns • Examples; reaction time, speed of movement, balance, timing
Information Processing • As your performance develops you are learning how to process relevant information effectively. The information processing model is one method you can use to consider how learning takes place. • The model contains four parts that are linked together in a ‘learning loop’. • The following diagram is an example of how the learning loop could be applied to a service reception in volleyball.
Decision Making Make decisions based on the input information you have received. Sifting more important information from less important information is the second part of the loop. Input Output This is the information you receive from your senses, e.g. sight and sound. This is the way in which you decide to move and respond to the decisions you have made. Feedback During and after your chosen response you will receive information about your performance
Decision Making Separate essential information from non-essential information. Make a decision. Are you closest? If so, call and move towards the ball. Input Output Position yourself correctly on court. Watch server closely. Note type of serve (e.g. underarm/overarm) Play a dig shot from your court position to a setter close to the net. Feedback Use information you receive about your performance to help you in the future. (E.g. how effective was your dig in terms of speed, flight and direction.)
Complex Open Externally Paced Fine Continuous Serial Classification of skills Simple Closed Self Paced Gross Discrete
Simple and Complex Skills Simple Skills Complex Skills Limited information to be processed A lot of information to be processed Fewer decisions to be made Many decisions to be made Processing speed slower Speed of thought crucial Accuracy not important Accuracy of skill vital to performance Fewer sub routines Many different sub routines E.g. Sprinting, swimming, cycling E.g. Vaulting, overhead clear, spike
The`Open’ - `Closed’ Continuum This classification system is based on the nature of the environment in which the skill is performed. Sports such as soccer, hockey, rugby, netball and other fast ball sports usually involve open skills. • Open Skills • performed in an environment which is constantly changing • making decisions about an action is often difficult due to the unpredictable nature of events • Closed Skills • take place in stable, predictable environments • performer knows in advance exactly what to do and when to do it.
Closed Skill Open Skill
The Pacing Continuum This is often used in conjunction with the open - closed continuum and refers to the timing / pacing of movements. • Self-Paced Skills • performer has the rate in which the skill is carried out under control • Externally-Paced Skills • require the performer to pay greater attention to external events in order to control his rate of movement • performer must time his movements depending on the speed of an object, or in accordance with the actions of other players
Self-paced Skills Externally-paced Skills
The Gross - Fine Continuum This is concerned with the precision of movement. The two extremes of the system are gross and fine motor skills. • Gross Skills • involve major muscle movements • not very precise and include many of the fundamental movement patterns such as walking, swimming and jumping. • Fine Skills • involve more intricate movements using small muscle groups • tend to be more precise in nature and generally involve a degree of hand-eye coordination. A lot of sports include skills which fall somewhere between these two extremes.
Gross Skills Fine Skills
The Discrete - Serial - Continuous Continuum This is concerned with how well defined the beginning and end of the skill are. • Discrete Skills • identified as very brief, well defined actions • have a definite beginning and end point • Continuous Skills • do not have distinct beginning or end points • could be stopped at any point during the performance of the skill • Serial Skills • activities which fall between these two have been categorised as serial tasks • serial skills are usually thought of as a group of discrete skills strung together to make a new and more complex movement
Discrete skills Continuous Skills Serial Skills
Looking at a model performer allows you to see how an action or technique should be performed. • Comparing your own performance to a model performer allows you to pinpoint weaknesses and the possible causes of poor technique.
Key Concept 2Skill / Technique through mechanical analysis or movement analysis or consideration of quality. • Here are two stages when analysing performance. • Collect general data from a ‘match’ (full performance) situation, to highlight where in your performance the problem(s) lie. (WHAT?) • Adopt one of the following methods of analysis to collect specific data, which can be used to establish the cause of the problem(s). (WHY?) Key Feature 1The purposes of collecting relevant and detailed information about performance.
Analysing Movement • There are three different ways of analysing movement. The type of activity you are involved in will determine which one is most suitable. • Mechanical Analysis: This analysis focuses mechanical principles of movement i.e. force, levers, balance, resistance, c of g, action/reaction and planes of movement. • Movement Analysis: This analysis focuses on preparation, action recovery phases of techniques and effort factors such as weight, time, space and flow. • Consideration of Quality: This analysis focuses on quality within technical, physical, personal and special aspects of a performance.
Mechanical Analysis • In throwing events in athletics, e.g. discus, where the effectiveness of a technique can be affected by small details, a mechanical analysis may be most useful. The analysis in this example would focus on force, use of body levers and planes of movement. • Force: The greater the force generated by turning, the greater the possibility of a long throw. • Use of body levers: The throwing arm uses a long lever. The turning force generated needs to be transferred to the throwing arm. • Planes of movement: The body can be divided into three different planes: sagittal, frontal and transverse. In the discus throw above, the athlete turns around her transverse plane to generate force.
Sagittal Plane Divides body into left and right Frontal Plane Divides body into back and front Horizontal Plane Divides body into top and bottom Planes of Movement
Movement Analysis • In other activities a movement analysis may provide the specific technique information you require. • An Observation Schedule covering the overhead clear is an example of movement analysis. It measures the effectiveness of a performer's preparation, action and recovery in playing a specific technique. • The criteria should cover movement to play the shot, movement during the shot and movement after hitting the shuttle.
Specific Observation ScheduleHigh Serve • This would be completed by a partner watching you repeating as many high serves as required to allow comparison of your performance with the model performer. • Alternatively you could video tape your performance and complete the schedule while watching the video.
Phase of action Features of Model Performance Done Well Needs Improvement Preparation • Stands side on to net • Feet shoulder width apart • Non racquet foot close to line • Weight on back foot • Racquet is up and back • Shuttle held out in front Action • Shuttle is dropped, racquet swings forward fast • Shuttle hit below waist • Whole racquet head below hand • Shuttle hit with whip like action • Weight transferred back to front • Feet remain in contact with floor • Racquet swing finishes across in front of body. Recovery • Returns to base • Takes up ready position
Consideration of Quality • This area is broken down into physical, technical, personal and special qualities. • Physical qualities include lightness of touch on a shuttle, speed around the court. • Technical qualities include the control over the racquet head, control of P.A.R. • Personal qualities include determination, perseverance. • Special qualities include deception or disguise and ability to adapt.
Having collected information about your performance you are now in a position to create a plan to improve your skill / technique. • It needs to be sufficiently detailed to reflect the information you have gathered if the perceived problems are to be overcome.
It is important to monitor the progress of the programme so that you can reorganize it to enable further improvement to take place. • To do this you would repeat the previous methods of analysis to identify the original weakness. You would then compare your findings with the original results to see what improvements had been made.
Key Concept 3 The development of skill and the refinement of technique. Key Feature 1 The Stages of Learning Learning a skill involves three stages Cognitive Associative Autonomous
Stages of Learning Important to your performance development is your understanding of the stages of learning. When planning practice sessions it is important to identify the significance of the three different stages of learning. • the Cognitive (or preparation) Stage allows you to learn or practice skills without pressure. This stage is often used with beginners or when introducing a new skill. This allows you to concentrate on basic key elements of the skill or movement. • the Associative (or practice) Stage allows you to focus on practice. At this stage the emphasis is on the correct sequence of movement patterns to produce the desired result. The repetition of the skill will become more more accurate and also more consistent. The amount of practice time needed varies with the complexity of the skill. • the Autonomous (or automatic) Stage when a performance reaches this level, movements are almost automatic with actions being carried out with very little conscious thought. Fewer mistakes are made and you are more consistent, reliable and accurate during your performance.
Look at video action, in this example the performer is clearly performing at the Autonomous or Automatic stage of learning. As you can see from the practice session her movement, timing and execution of the skill is very accurate. During the game sequence she demonstrates skills effectively with control, accuracy and precision. She is totally focussed on the task and looks confident throughout her performance. Think of an activity that you have most experience in. What stage of learning do you think you are at ?
Cognitive Stage • first concern is to understand the task at hand • learner also has to pay attention to the details of the action, rather than freeing their attention to watch what is happening around them • large number of errors which leads to very variable performance • errors made are usually quite gross • teachers need to supply plenty of feedback which could be visual (demonstrations), verbal (instructions), or manual (physical guidance)
AssociativePhase • concerned with practising the newly acquired skill. • learner makes associations with previously learned skills • fewer errors are experienced, usually caused by difficulties in controlling speed, force or timing of movements • change in type of feedback, move from visual/verbal to more reliance on internal/kinesthetic
Autonomous Phase • performers can produce skilled actions automatically with little or no conscious control to movement production • physical performance is highly consistent, efficient and having few errors • performers are now capable of identifying own errors and correcting themselves • performer frees his/her mind to deal more effectively with environmental information, such as player and object positions, or how a particular strategy is developing • role for the teacher is in assisting with the finer details of technique or focusing on strategy and mental preparation.
Methods of Practice • The type of practice you select will depend on the type of skill you are learning and the stage of learning you are at. • There are five main practice methods. These include gradual build up, whole part whole, repetition, pressure training and problem solving. Regardless of the method you select, your practices must be challenging, realistic and varied.
Gradual build upcan be used when you are learning complex skills, such as, an overhead clear in badminton. Similarly, gradual build up can be used to practice game skills. For example, you could practice and refine your passing skills before adding the pressures of coping with defending players.
'Whole part whole'can be used when there is a problem with part of the whole performance, for example, in volleyball your attack play is poor, in particular the team's setting. In your practice sessions, specific drills should be used to address this weakness before putting the skill back into the game.
Repetition practicecan be used when you want to establish familiarity and consistency of the skill or technique. Mainly used for closed, self-paced skills, such as, the serve in volleyball.
Pressure trainingcan be used when you want to ensure that the skill is consistently performed when under pressure.
Problem Solvingcan be used when you want to develop decision-making skills.
Gradual Build-Up • Shadowing • Feeder no pressure • Feeder pressure • Combination Drills • Conditioned Games
Shadowing • Allows the performer to groove the technique without any external pressure, so that it becomes automatic and the sub routines are coordinated in the correct order