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C Tutorial

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  1. C++ Tutorial Rob Jagnow

  2. Overview • Pointers • Arrays and strings • Parameter passing • Class basics • Constructors & destructors • Class Hierarchy • Virtual Functions • Coding tips • Advanced topics

  3. Pointers Create a pointer int *intPtr; intPtr = new int; *intPtr = 6837; delete intPtr; int otherVal = 5; intPtr = &otherVal; Allocate memory Set value at given address *intPtr 6837 intPtr 0x0050 Deallocate memory Change intPtr to point to a new location *intPtr 5 otherVal intPtr 0x0054 &otherVal

  4. Arrays Stack allocation int intArray[10]; intArray[0] = 6837; Heap allocation int *intArray; intArray = new int[10]; intArray[0] = 6837; ... delete[] intArray;

  5. Strings A string in C++ is an array of characters char myString[20]; strcpy(myString, "Hello World"); Strings are terminated with the NULL or '\0' character myString[0] = 'H'; myString[1] = 'i'; myString[2] = '\0'; printf("%s", myString); output: Hi

  6. Parameter Passing pass by value Make a local copy of a & b int add(int a, int b) { return a+b; } int a, b, sum; sum = add(a, b); pass by reference Pass pointers that reference a & b. Changes made to a or b will be reflected outside the add routine int add(int *a, int *b) { return *a + *b; } int a, b, sum; sum = add(&a, &b);

  7. Parameter Passing pass by reference – alternate notation int add(int &a, int &b) { return a+b; } int a, b, sum; sum = add(a, b);

  8. Class Basics #ifndef _IMAGE_H_ #define _IMAGE_H_ #include <assert.h> #include "vectors.h“ class Image { public: ... private: ... }; #endif Prevents multiple references Include a library file Include a local file Variables and functions accessible from anywhere Variables and functions accessible only from within this class

  9. Creating an instance Stack allocation Image myImage; myImage.SetAllPixels(ClearColor); Heap allocation Image *imagePtr; imagePtr = new Image(); imagePtr->SetAllPixels(ClearColor); ... delete imagePtr;

  10. Organizational Strategy image.h Header file: Class definition & function prototypes void SetAllPixels(const Vec3f &color); image.C .C file: Full function definitions void Image::SetAllPixels(const Vec3f &color) { for (int i = 0; i < width*height; i++) data[i] = color; } main.C Main code: Function references myImage.SetAllPixels(clearColor);

  11. Constructors & Destructors class Image { public: Image(void) { width = height = 0; data = NULL; } ~Image(void) { if (data != NULL) delete[] data; } int width; int height; Vec3f *data; }; Constructor: Called whenever a new instance is created Destructor: Called whenever an instance is deleted

  12. Constructors Constructors can also take parameters Image(int w, int h) { width = w; height = h; data = new Vec3f[w*h]; } Using this constructor with stack or heap allocation: stack allocation Image myImage = Image(10, 10); Image *imagePtr; imagePtr = new Image(10, 10); heap allocation

  13. The Copy Constructor Image(Image *img) { width = img->width; height = img->height; data = new Vec3f[width*height]; for (int i=0; i<width*height; i++) data[i] = new data[i]; } A default copy constructor is created automatically, but it is usually not what you want: Image(Image *img) { width = img->width; height = img->height; data = img->data; }

  14. Passing Classes as Parameters If a class instance is passed by reference, the copy constructor will be used to make a copy. bool IsImageGreen(Image img); Computationally expensive It’s much faster to pass by reference: bool IsImageGreen(Image *img); or bool IsImageGreen(Image &img);

  15. Class Hierarchy Child classes inherit parent attributes Object3D class Object3D { Vec3f color; }; class Sphere : public Object3D { float radius; }; class Cone : public Object3D { float base; float height; }; Sphere Cone

  16. Class Hierarchy Child classes can call parent functions Sphere::Sphere() : Object3D() { radius = 1.0; } Call the parent constructor Child classes can override parent functions class Object3D { virtual void setDefaults(void) { color = RED; } }; class Sphere : public Object3D { void setDefaults(void) { color = BLUE; radius = 1.0 } };

  17. Virtual Functions A superclass pointer can reference a subclass object Sphere *mySphere = new Sphere(); Object3D *myObject = mySphere; If a superclass has virtual functions, the correct subclass version will automatically be selected class Object3D { virtual void intersect(Vec3f *ray, Vec3f *hit); }; class Sphere : public Object3D { virtual void intersect(Vec3f *ray, Vec3f *hit); }; myObject->intersect(ray, hit); Superclass Subclass Actually calls Sphere::intersect

  18. The main function This is where your code begins execution int main(int argc, char** argv); Number of arguments Array of strings argv[0] is the program name argv[1] through argv[argc-1] are command-line input

  19. Coding tips Use the #define compiler directive for constants #define PI 3.14159265 #define sinf sin Use the printf or cout functions for output and debugging printf("value: %d, %f\n", myInt, myFloat); cout << "value:" << myInt << ", " << myFloat << endl; Use the assert function to test “always true” conditions assert(denominator != 0); quotient = numerator/denominator;

  20. “Segmentation fault (core dumped)” Typical causes: Access outside of array bounds int intArray[10]; intArray[10] = 6837; Image *img; img->SetAllPixels(ClearColor); Attempt to access a NULL or previously deleted pointer These errors are often very difficult to catch and can cause erratic, unpredictable behavior.

  21. Advanced topics • Lots of advanced topics, but few will be required for this course • friend or protected class members • inline functions • const or static functions and variables • pure virtual functions • virtual void Intersect(Ray &r, Hit &h) = 0; • compiler directives • operator overloading • Vec3f& operator+(Vec3f &a, Vec3f &b);