ETOPS Briefing Part 1 - Definition History - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ETOPS Briefing Part 1 - Definition History

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  1. ET PS Briefing ETOPS HIST RY Delhi - February 1999

  2. Definitions • What is the meaning of ETOPS? Extended range with Twin engine aircraft OPerationS • What is the scope of ETOPS? Operation of twin engine aircraft on routes that go further than 1 hour from a diversion airfield

  3. Definitions 60’ circles KHI BOM SLL JIB CMB NBO Non ETOPS flight

  4. Definitions 60’ circles KHI BOM SLL JIB CMB NBO ETOPS flight

  5. Definitions • ETOPS regulations are applicable to: Overwater operations Overland operations (desert areas...) • What is the meaning of EROPS? Extended Range OPerationS EROPS describes the applicability of ETOPS requirements to any aircraft, regardless the number of engines

  6. History • Extended range “operations“ started very early: • 1909: first English Channel crossing (L. Bleriot) • 1919: first North Atlantic Ocean crossing (J. Alcock & A. Brown)

  7. History • 1927: first non-stop New York - Paris (C. Lindbergh) first US Cost-Hawaï crossing (A.Hegenberger & L.Maitland) first South Atlantic crossing (D. Costes & J. Le Brix) • Extended range “operations“ started very early:

  8. History • 1928: first Pacific Ocean crossing (C.K. Smith & C.T. Ulm) • 1930: first non-stop Paris - NewYork (D. Costes & M. Bellonte) • Extended range “operations“ started very early:

  9. History • “Extended range” commercial operations started in the late 1930s: • 1936: first trans-Pacific commercial flights • 1939: first trans-Atlantic commercial flights

  10. History • These types of flights required large multi-engined flying-boats: • poor engine reliability and performance could not allow design of equally efficient twin engine aircraft

  11. History • Piston engine reliability • The following chart (1953 ICAO report) gives the probability of failure for piston engines vs power at 1000 constant rpm: • the probability of failure increases as power is increased

  12. History • Piston engine reliability (cont’d) • The 1953 ICAO report shows that for the same amount of installed horsepower, the risk of an engine failure is greater on a 2 engine design than on a 4 engine design:design required hp

  13. History • As reliable and reasonably light engines had limited power: • design of long range aircraft (high weight) implied installation of several engines (more than two) • twin engine aircraft had limited payload/range performance and were only operated on short flights

  14. History • In 1953, further to a review of the piston engine reliability, the FAA published the initial “60 minutes” rule: • applicable to three (until 1964) and two engine aircraft • special approval for operations beyond 60 minutes • At the same time, ICAO issued its “90 minutes” recommendations: • no airplane shall be operated beyond 90 min (all engines operative) from a diversion airfield, except if the route can be flown with two engines inoperative • common interpretation was that twin engine aircraft could be operated on 90 minutes routes

  15. History • Until 1952, all commercial flights were operated with piston engine powered airplanes: • 1952: first commercial operation with jet airplane (DH Comet 1) • 1958: first transatlantic commercial jet operation (DH Comet 4) • Since 1960, jet engine powered aircraft progressively replaced piston engine powered aircraft: • on all long range routes • on most of regional routes

  16. History • Higher performance of jet engines allowed operations of twins on 90 min routes (Caribbeans, Africa, Bay of Bengal, North Atlantic, South China Sea, ...)

  17. History • Jet engine reliability • More than 40 years of jet operations have shown that unlike piston engines, jet engine failure probability is not affected by the thrust or the size of the engine: • Therefore, the probability of an engine failure is now higher on a quad-jet than on a twin-jet (for 1000 FH)

  18. History • The introduction in the 1980s of twin aircraft (A310, B767) powered with modern (fuel efficient) turbofan engines made the old 60/90 minute rules inadequate: • 1984: ICAO ETOPS study group amend Annex 6 • 1985: FAA publishes first ETOPS regulation to address 120 min operations • 1985: first ETOPS operation (SIA/A310 - TWA/B767)

  19. History • In 1988, the Authorities published rules for 180 minutes ETOPS based on the very good experience with 120 minutes operations: • today, ETOPS operation is representing over 60% of North Atlantic operations • Regulatory discussions are on-going to assess: • extension of the ETOPS limit beyond 180 minutes • increase of the non-ETOPS threshold above 60 minutes