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Section 10: Electronic Commerce Security

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  1. Chapter 10:Electronic Commerce Security

  2. Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: • Online security issues • Security for client computers • Security for the communication channels between computers • Security for server computers • Organizations that promote computer, network, and Internet security

  3. Online Security Issues Overview • Computer security • The protection of assets from unauthorized access, use, alteration, or destruction • Physical security • Includes tangible protection devices • Logical security • Protection of assets using nonphysical means • Threat • Any act or object that poses a danger to computer assets

  4. Managing Risk • Countermeasure • General name for a procedure that recognizes, reduces, or eliminates a threat • Eavesdropper • Person or device that can listen in on and copy Internet transmissions • Crackers or hackers • Write programs or manipulate technologies to obtain unauthorized access to computers and networks

  5. Computer Security Classifications • Secrecy • Protecting against unauthorized data disclosure and ensuring the authenticity of a data source • Integrity • Refers to preventing unauthorized data modification • Necessity • Refers to preventing data delays or denials

  6. Security Policy and Integrated Security • A security policy is a written statement describing: • Which assets to protect and why they are being protected • Who is responsible for that protection • Which behaviors are acceptable and which are not • First step in creating a security policy • Determine which assets to protect from which threats

  7. Security Policy and Integrated Security (continued) • Elements of a security policy address: • Authentication • Access control • Secrecy • Data integrity • Audits

  8. Memorandum 06-61 • National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Memo 06-61 • Encrypt all data on mobile computers • Allow remote access only with two-factor authentication • Use a “time-out” function for remote access • Log all computer-readable data extracts from databases holding sensitive information

  9. Security for Client Computers • Stateless connection • Each transmission of information is independent • Session cookies • Exist until the Web client ends connection • Persistent cookies • Remain on a client computer indefinitely • First-party cookies • Cookies placed on a client computer by a Web server site • Third-party cookies • Originates on a Web site other than the site being visited • Web bug • Tiny graphic that a third-party Web site places on another site’s Web page

  10. Active Content • Active content refers to programs embedded transparently in Web pages that cause an action to occur • Scripting languages: Provide scripts, or commands, that are executed • Applet: Small application program • Trojan horse: Program hidden inside another program or Web page that masks its true purpose • Zombie: Program that secretly takes over another computer to launch attacks on other computers.

  11. Digital Certificates • A digital certificate is a program embedded in a Web page that verifies that the sender or Web site is who or what it claims to be • A certificate is signed code or messages that provide proof that the holder is the person identified by the certificate • Certification authority (CA) issues digital certificates

  12. Digital Certificates Main elements: Certificate owner’s identifying information Certificate owner’s public key Dates between which the certificate is valid Serial number of the certificate Name of the certificate issuer Digital signature of the certificate issuer

  13. Steganography • The process of hiding information within another piece of information • Provides a way of hiding an encrypted file within another file • Messages hidden using steganography are difficult to detect

  14. Communication Channel Security • Secrecy is the prevention of unauthorized information disclosure • Privacyis the protection of individual rights to nondisclosure

  15. Communication Channel Security • Sniffer programs • Provide the means to record information passing through a computer or router that is handling Internet traffic

  16. Integrity Threats • Integrity threats exist when an unauthorized party can alter a message stream of information • Cybervandalism • Electronic defacing of an existing Web site’s page • Masquerading or spoofing • Pretending to be someone you are not • Domain name servers (DNSs) • Computers on the Internet that maintain directories that link domain names to IP addresses

  17. Threats to Wireless Networks • Wardrivers • Attackers drive around to search for accessible networks • Warchalking • When wardrivers find an open network they mark the site

  18. Encryption Solutions • Encryption • Using a mathematically based program and a secret key to produce a string of characters that is unintelligible • Cryptography • Science that studies encryption

  19. Security for Server Computers • Web server • Can compromise secrecy if it allows automatic directory listings • Can compromise security by requiring users to enter a username and password • Dictionary attack programs • Cycle through an electronic dictionary, trying every word in the book as a password

  20. Other Programming Threats • Buffer • An area of memory set aside to hold data read from a file or database • Buffer overrun • Occurs because the program contains an error or bug that causes the overflow • Mail bomb • Occurs when hundreds or even thousands of people each send a message to a particular address

  21. Firewalls • Software or hardware and software combination installed on a network to control packet traffic • Provides a defense between the network to be protected and the Internet, or other network that could pose a threat

  22. Firewalls • Packet-filter firewalls • Examine data flowing back and forth between a trusted network and the Internet • Gateway servers • Firewalls that filter traffic based on the application requested • Proxy server firewalls • Firewalls that communicate with the Internet on the private network’s behalf

  23. Organizations that Promote Computer Security • CERT • Responds to thousands of security incidents each year • Helps Internet users and companies become more knowledgeable about security risks • Posts alerts to inform the Internet community about security events

  24. Other Organizations • SANS Institute • A cooperative research and educational organization • SANS Internet Storm Center • Web site that provides current information on the location and intensity of computer attacks • Microsoft Security Research Group • Privately sponsored site that offers free information about computer security issues

  25. Computer Forensics and Ethical Hacking • Computer forensics experts • Hired to probe PCs and locate information that can be used in legal proceedings • Computer forensics • The collection, preservation, and analysis of computer-related evidence

  26. Summary • Assets that companies must protect include: • Client computers • Computer communication channels • Web servers • Communication channels, in general, and the Internet, in particular, are especially vulnerable to attacks • Encryption • Provides secrecy

  27. Summary • Web servers are susceptible to security threats • Programs that run on servers might: • Damage databases • Abnormally terminate server software • Make subtle changes in proprietary information • Security organizations include CERT and SANS