副詞子句 Dr. Chen
核心句 He injured his neck Dallas, Texas, had become the seventh largest city in the USA We went to a movie 附加語 lately. (副詞) by 1871. (副詞片語) after we completed our work. (副詞子句) 句型
基本結構 • 限定子句 (Finitive Clause) • 非限定子句 (Non-finitive Clause) • 省略句 (Omitted Clause) • 介係詞片語 /介係詞子句 (Pre. Phrase/Pre. Clause)
限定子句 (Finitive Clause) • When Congress passed the Yellowstone Act, the world first national park was created. • Since respiration is required for continual energy release, it is harmful to stop it for more than a short time
非限定子句 (Non-finitive Clause) • Endeavoring to form his own orchestra for many years, Glenn Miller achieved world fame in 1939 as a big band leader. • (=After Glenn Miller endeavored to form his own orchestra for many years,...)
非限定子句 II (Non-finitive Clause) • Once threatened with extinction, the trumpet swan has made a strong comeback in the national parks of the U.S.A. • (=Although the trumpet swan was once threatened with extinction, ...)
省略句 (Omitted Clause) • Keenly aware of the advantages of a college education, many young people study very hard to obtain it. • (=Because many young people are keenly… • Although poisonous, many alkaloids are valued as medicine. • (=Although many alkaloids are poisonous,....)
介係詞片語 /介係詞子句 (Pre. Phrase/Pre. Clause) • Despite inflation, the standard of living in Taiwan has risen during the past decade. (介係詞片語) • With the coming of spring, his health is improved. • (=With spring coming, ….) • (=As spring comes,...) 介係詞子句
基本結構 Review • 連接詞 + 子句(S1+V!), 主句(S+V) • 分詞構句(V-ing/V-en), 主句 • 形容詞…,主句 (省略句) • 介係詞…,主句
however, nevertheless (but) therefore, thus (so) besides, in addition, moreover, furthermore (and) He is nice;however I don’t like him. He is the only candidate.Therefore he was elected. He dances well; furthermore she is good at singing. 連接性副詞
1. The Smithsonian Institution preserves more than than sixty-five million items of scientific, historical, or artistic interest, _____ winning the popular title, "attic of the nation".(A) however (B) thus (C) and (D) however • 2. Ceyenne pepper comes from the seedpod of the pepper plant, which is dried, thenground.
時間副詞連接詞 (when, while, as, since, until, ) 地方副詞連接詞 (where…, there, wherever) 條件、讓步副詞 (although/despite/in spite of; unless/ except 因果關係副詞連接詞 (because/ in that /since/on account of) 目地的副詞連接詞 (to V…) 副詞連接詞
時間副詞連接詞-I • When + 動態動詞(dynamic V. ) • He left when I arrived. • A neutron forms when a star much more massive than the sun dies and explodes • While + 靜態動詞 (statistic V.) • .Strike while iron is hot. • While Hugo was a student at City College of New York, he organized the United Graffiti Artists
時間副詞連接詞-II • Since (採現在完成式) • I have been there many times since the war ended. • As/just as ; 邊…邊... • As they walked along the street, they looked into the window • I like the job more just as I get used to it.
時間副詞連接詞-III • not...until (before) • We didn’t see each other until (it was) recently. • hardly saw until he got married. • until (=up to) • Dried leaves continue to hang on the branches of some deciduous trees until the new leaves appear.
地方副詞連接詞 • wherever/ where...there • Wherever we went, we found poverty. • Where Jones works, there you will find the root of the problem. • Where there is a will, there is a way. • _______ there is no rain, farming is difficult or impossible
條件、讓步副詞連接詞 • although/though/even though 雖然、儘管 • Although she smoke 40 cigarettes a day, she is quite fit. • = She is quite fit even though she smokes… • Salmon spend most of their adult lives in salt water __________ they return to their freshwater birthplaces to spawn and die.
條件、讓步副詞連接詞 • in spite of/despite ... • In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our holiday. • I didn't get the job ___________ I had all the necessary qualification. • I didn't get the job ______ my qualification.
條件、讓步副詞連接詞 • unless\except (for) • Bears will not usually attack a man unless it is provoked. • whether...or not • Whether he is right or wrong, he always comes off worst in argument
條件、讓步副詞連接詞 • No matter how +adj/adv +主 + 動詞 • Although he is rich, she won’t marry him. • No matter how rich he is, … • However rich he is, …….. • Although he is a millionaire, she... • No matter what (person) he is, she..
條件、讓步副詞連接詞 • Although it is written in Latin, what is original will be read. • No matterhow it is written, what is … • Although it is written in Latin, what is original will be read. • No matter what language it is written in, what is original will be read.
因果關係副詞連接詞 • because/since/as/for/in that; because of • Neon light is utilized in airport beacons because it can permeate fog. • Nevada has limited supply because of its light rainfall. • seeing (that)/now that 既然 • Seeing (that) he refused to help us, there is no reason why we should now help him
目地的副詞連接詞 • in order to/so as to • Nellie McClung struggled relentlessly in the early 20th century (in order) to win political and legal rights for Canadian women • To win political and legal rights for Canadian women, Nellie McClung struggled relentlessly in the early 20th century