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Computerized Image Processing: Introduction

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  1. Digital Image Processing:Introduction Brian Mac Namee Brian.MacNamee@comp.dit.ie

  2. Introduction • “One picture is worth more than ten thousand words” • Anonymous

  3. Miscellanea • Lectures: • Thursdays 12:00 – 13:00 • Fridays 15:00 – 16:00 • Labs: • Wednesdays 09:00 – 11:00 • Web Site:www.comp.dit.ie/bmacnamee/ • Previous year’s slides are available here • Slides etc will also be available on WebCT • E-mail: Brian.MacNamee@dit.ie

  4. References • “Digital Image Processing”, Rafael C. Gonzalez & Richard E. Woods, Addison-Wesley, 2002 • Much of the material that follows is taken from this book • “Machine Vision: Automated Visual Inspection and Robot Vision”, David Vernon, Prentice Hall, 1991 • Available online at:homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/rbf/BOOKS/VERNON/

  5. Contents • This lecture will cover: • What is a digital image? • What is digital image processing? • History of digital image processing • State of the art examples of digital image processing • Key stages in digital image processing

  6. What is a Digital Image? Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) • A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels

  7. What is a Digital Image? (cont…) Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) 1 pixel • Pixel values typically represent gray levels, colours, heights, opacities etc • Rememberdigitization implies that a digital image is an approximation of a real scene

  8. What is a Digital Image? (cont…) • Common image formats include: • 1 sample per point (B&W or Grayscale) • 3 samples per point (Red, Green, and Blue) • 4 samples per point (Red, Green, Blue, and “Alpha”, a.k.a. Opacity) • For most of this course we will focus on grey-scale images

  9. What is Digital Image Processing? • Digital image processing focuses on two major tasks • Improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation • Processing of image data for storage, transmission and representation for autonomous machine perception • Some argument about where image processing ends and fields such as image analysis and computer vision start

  10. What is DIP? (cont…) High Level Process Mid Level Process Low Level Process Input: Attributes Output: Understanding Examples: Scene understanding, autonomous navigation Input: Image Output: Attributes Examples: Object recognition, segmentation Input: ImageOutput: Image Examples: Noise removal, image sharpening • The continuum from image processing to computer vision can be broken up into low-, mid- and high-level processes In this course we will stop here

  11. History of Digital Image Processing Early digital image Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) • Early 1920s: One of the first applications of digital imaging was in the news-paper industry • The Bartlane cable picture transmission service • Images were transferred by submarine cable between London and New York • Pictures were coded for cable transfer and reconstructed at the receiving end on a telegraph printer

  12. History of DIP (cont…) Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) Improved digital image Early 15 tone digital image • Mid to late 1920s: Improvements to the Bartlane system resulted in higher quality images • New reproduction processes based on photographic techniques • Increased number of tones in reproduced images

  13. History of DIP (cont…) Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) A picture of the moon taken by the Ranger 7 probe minutes before landing • 1960s: Improvements in computing technology and the onset of the space race led to a surge of work in digital image processing • 1964: Computers used to improve the quality of images of the moon taken by the Ranger 7 probe • Such techniques were usedin other space missions including the Apollo landings

  14. History of DIP (cont…) Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) Typical head slice CAT image • 1970s: Digital image processing begins to be used in medical applications • 1979: Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield & Prof. Allan M. Cormack share the Nobel Prize in medicine for the invention of tomography, the technology behind Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT) scans

  15. History of DIP (cont…) • 1980s - Today: The use of digital image processing techniques has exploded and they are now used for all kinds of tasks in all kinds of areas • Image enhancement/restoration • Artistic effects • Medical visualisation • Industrial inspection • Law enforcement • Human computer interfaces

  16. Examples: Image Enhancement Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) • One of the most common uses of DIP techniques: improve quality, remove noise etc

  17. Examples: The Hubble Telescope • Launched in 1990 the Hubble telescope can take images of very distant objects • However, an incorrect mirror made many of Hubble’s images useless • Image processing techniques were used to fix this

  18. Examples: Artistic Effects • Artistic effects are used to make images more visually appealing, to add special effects and to make composite images

  19. Examples: Medicine Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) • Take slice from MRI scan of canine heart, and find boundaries between types of tissue • Image with gray levels representing tissue density • Use a suitable filter to highlight edges Original MRI Image of a Dog Heart Edge Detection Image

  20. Examples: GIS Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) • Geographic Information Systems • Digital image processing techniques are used extensively to manipulate satellite imagery • Terrain classification • Meteorology

  21. Examples: GIS (cont…) Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) • Night-Time Lights of the World data set • Global inventory of human settlement • Not hard to imagine the kind of analysis that might be done using this data

  22. Examples: Industrial Inspection Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) • Human operators are expensive, slow andunreliable • Make machines do thejob instead • Industrial vision systems are used in all kinds of industries • Can we trust them?

  23. Examples: PCB Inspection • Printed Circuit Board (PCB) inspection • Machine inspection is used to determine that all components are present and that all solder joints are acceptable • Both conventional imaging and x-ray imaging are used

  24. Examples: Law Enforcement Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) • Image processing techniques are used extensively by law enforcers • Number plate recognition for speed cameras/automated toll systems • Fingerprint recognition • Enhancement of CCTV images

  25. Examples: HCI • Try to make human computer interfaces more natural • Face recognition • Gesture recognition • Does anyone remember the user interface from “Minority Report”? • These tasks can be extremely difficult

  26. Key Stages in Digital Image Processing Image Restoration Morphological Processing Image Enhancement Segmentation Image Acquisition Object Recognition Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Image Compression

  27. Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:Image Aquisition Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) Image Restoration Morphological Processing Image Enhancement Segmentation Image Acquisition Object Recognition Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Image Compression

  28. Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:Image Enhancement Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) Image Restoration Morphological Processing Image Enhancement Segmentation Image Acquisition Object Recognition Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Image Compression

  29. Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:Image Restoration Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) Image Restoration Morphological Processing Image Enhancement Segmentation Image Acquisition Object Recognition Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Image Compression

  30. Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:Morphological Processing Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) Image Restoration Morphological Processing Image Enhancement Segmentation Image Acquisition Object Recognition Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Image Compression

  31. Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:Segmentation Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) Image Restoration Morphological Processing Image Enhancement Segmentation Image Acquisition Object Recognition Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Image Compression

  32. Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:Object Recognition Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) Image Restoration Morphological Processing Image Enhancement Segmentation Image Acquisition Object Recognition Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Image Compression

  33. Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:Representation & Description Images taken from Gonzalez & Woods, Digital Image Processing (2002) Image Restoration Morphological Processing Image Enhancement Segmentation Image Acquisition Object Recognition Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Image Compression

  34. Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:Image Compression Image Restoration Morphological Processing Image Enhancement Segmentation Image Acquisition Object Recognition Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Image Compression

  35. Key Stages in Digital Image Processing:Colour Image Processing Image Restoration Morphological Processing Image Enhancement Segmentation Image Acquisition Object Recognition Representation & Description Problem Domain Colour Image Processing Image Compression

  36. Summary • We have looked at: • What is a digital image? • What is digital image processing? • History of digital image processing • State of the art examples of digital image processing • Key stages in digital image processing • Next time we will start to see how it all works…