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Risks

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  1. Stairways and Ladders OSHA Office of Training & Education

  2. Hazards • Stairways and ladders cause many injuries and fatalities among construction workers • About half the injuries caused by slips, trips and falls from ladders and stairways require time off the job Improper use of the top rung of a step ladder OSHA Office of Training & Education

  3. Slips, Trips and FallsOn Stairways and Ladders At the end of this training, you should be able to list or describe: • Safety guidelines and requirements for stairways used at a construction site • Safe practices and requirements for ladders used at a construction site OSHA Office of Training & Education

  4. Stairway or Ladder There must be a stairway or ladder at points of access where there is an elevation break of 19 inches or more. At least one point of access must be kept clear. Break in elevation 19 inches OSHA Office of Training & Education

  5. Handrail vs. Stairrail Stairrail Handrail System OSHA Office of Training & Education

  6. Handrail and Top Rail Strength Rails must be able to withstand a force of 200 pounds OSHA Office of Training & Education

  7. Handrails Stairways with four or more risers, or higher than 30 inches, must be equipped with at least one handrail. The stairway to this platform has more than 4 risers and is not guarded. The platform requires guarding. OSHA Office of Training & Education

  8. Stairrails Stairways with four or more risers or more than 30 inches high must have a stairrail along each unprotected side or edge. OSHA Office of Training & Education

  9. Stairs Install between 30 and 50 degrees. Must have uniform riser height and tread depth, with less than a 1/4-inch variation. Uniform - 30 & 50 deg. angle No more than 1/4 inch variation in any stairway system OSHA Office of Training & Education

  10. Temporary Stairways Only use pan stairs if filled with filler material at least to the top edge of each pan. Pan OSHA Office of Training & Education

  11. Stairway Landings Stairways landings must be at least 30 inches deep and 22 inches wide at every 12 feet or less of vertical rise Unprotected sides of landings must have standard 42 inch guardrail systems Landing OSHA Office of Training & Education

  12. Platforms and Swing Doors Where doors or gates open directly on a stairway, provide a platform that extends at least 20 inches beyond the swing of the door. OSHA Office of Training & Education

  13. Dangerous Conditions Fix slippery conditions before using. Stairway parts must be free of projections which may cause injuries or snag clothing. OSHA Office of Training & Education

  14. Ladders OSHA Office of Training & Education

  15. General Ladder Requirements Ladders must be kept in a safe condition -- DO – Keep the area around the top and bottom of a ladder clear Ensure rungs, cleats, and steps are level and uniformly spaced Ensure rungs are spaced 10 to 14 inches apart Keep ladders free from slipping hazards OSHA Office of Training & Education

  16. General Ladder Requirements Use ladders only for their designed purpose -- DON’T – Tie ladders together to make longer sections, unless designed for such use Use single rail ladders Load ladders beyond the maximum load for which they were built, nor beyond the manufacturer’s rated capacity OSHA Office of Training & Education

  17. Securing Ladders This ladder is not on a stable surface • Secure ladders to prevent accidental movement due to workplace activity • Only use ladders on stable and level surfaces, unless secured • Do not use ladders on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feet OSHA Office of Training & Education

  18. Portable Ladders Inspect before use for cracks, dents, and missing rungs Design or treat rungs to minimize slipping Side rails -- at least 11 1/2 inches apart Must support 4 times the maximum load OSHA Office of Training & Education

  19. Double - Cleated Ladder Use a double-cleated ladder ( with center rail) or 2 or more ladders: • when ladders are the only way to enter or exit a working area with 25 or more employees • when a ladder will serve simultaneous two-way traffic OSHA Office of Training & Education

  20. Painting Wood Ladders Don’t paint ladders Don’t use an opaque covering (like varnish) on a wood ladder OSHA Office of Training & Education

  21. Ladder Angle Non-self-supporting ladders: (which lean against a wall or other support) • Position at an angle where the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is 1/4 the working length of the ladder OSHA Office of Training & Education

  22. Ladder Rail Extension When using a portable ladder for access to an upper landing surface, the side rails must extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface OSHA Office of Training & Education

  23. Tall Fixed Ladder Requirements Equip a fixed ladder 24 feet or longer with either a: Ladder safety device Self-retracting lifelines with rest platforms every 150 feet or less Cage or well, and multiple ladder sections, each section not exceeding 50 feet OSHA Office of Training & Education

  24. Near Energized Electrical Equipment If using ladders where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized electrical equipment, they must have nonconductive siderails such as wood or fiberglass. This is an unsafe condition OSHA Office of Training & Education

  25. Top Step Do not use the top or top step of a stepladder as a step OSHA Office of Training & Education

  26. Crossbracing On this ladder the back rungs are designed for use Don’t use crossbracing on the rear of a stepladder for climbing - unless the ladder is designed for that OSHA Office of Training & Education

  27. Damaged or Defective Ladders A competent person must inspect ladders for visible defects, like broken or missing rungs If a defective ladder is found, immediately mark it defective or tag it "Do Not Use” Withdraw defective ladders from service until repaired Missing rung OSHA Office of Training & Education

  28. Climbing the Ladder Face the ladder when going up or down Use at least one hand to grab the ladder when going up or down Do not carry any object or load that could cause you to lose balance OSHA Office of Training & Education

  29. Training • A competent person must train each employee in the following areas, as applicable: • The nature of fall hazards in the work area • The correct procedures for erecting, • maintaining, and disassembling the fall • protection systems to be used • The proper construction, use, placement, and care in handling of all stairways and ladders • The maximum intended load-carrying capacities of ladders OSHA Office of Training & Education

  30. Summary Key Components for Stairway Safety • Treads • Rails • handrails • stairrails • guardrails • Landings and Platforms OSHA Office of Training & Education

  31. Summary Key Components for Ladder Safety • A competent person must inspect • Use the correct ladder for the job • Use the correct angle, supports, treads, cross braces and rails • Don’t overload • Your employer must train you in proper use of a ladder OSHA Office of Training & Education