Sport Management • Defining Sport and Sport Management • Scope of Sport Industry • Sport Industry Models • Product Type • Economic Impact Model • Sport Activity Model • How is Sport Management Unique • Future Challenges
Sport: Defined Sport can be work (professional athlete), a means of employment (sports tourism director), or a business (sport marketing agency).
Sport: Defined Sport has five characteristics: • Play-like in nature • Involves some competition • Based on physical prowess • Has elements of skill, strategy, and chance • Has an uncertain outcome Loy (1968) So are there “sports” that don’t fit this definition?
Sport: Further Defined Competitive physical activity, utilizing specialized equipment and facilities, with unique dimensions of time and space, in which the quest for records is of high significance (VanderZwaag, 1998) Is institutionalized competitive activity that involves rigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skills by participants motivated by personal enjoyment and external rewards (Coakley, 2001)
Sport Management: Defined Any combination of skills related to planning organizing, directing, controlling, budgeting, leading, and evaluating within the context of an organization or department whose primary product or service is related to sport or physical activity (Desensi, et al., 1990)
School/College Academic program Professional Sport Amateur Sport Private Club Sport Commercial Sport Environments Arenas, Stadia, etc Community Rec Program Industrial Sport Program Sport in Social Agencies Military Sport Marketing and Consulting Developmental Programs (Sports Foundations) Corporate Sponsorship Sporting Goods Sports Media Academia Sport Industry: Scope
Sport Management Components: How do they fit together ? • Industrial Models • Product Type Model (Pitts, Fielding, & Miller, 1994) • Economic Impact Model (Meek, 1997) • Sport Activity Model (Li, Hofacre, & Mahoney, 2001)
Product Type Model (Pitts, Fielding, & Miller, 1994) Performance Offered to consumer as a participant or spectator Production Needed to influence the quality of sport performance Promotion Tools to promote the Sport product Promotional merchandising products Promotional events Media Sponsorship Endorsements Athletics - Amateur, Professional Private Sport Tax Supported Sport Membership Supported Sport Non-Profit Sport Sport Education Fitness and Sport Firms • Outfitting Products • Equipment, apparel • Performance Production • Fitness trainer • medical care • Sports Facilities • Governing Bodies
Economic Impact Model (Meek, 1997) Sport Products Sport Entertainment Sport Support Organizations Trade Shows Market Anal Staging Pro Amatuer Sport Teams Pro/Am Marketing R&D Events Management Procurement Athletes Manufacture Hotel Distribution Soft Goods Hard Goods Tourism Restaurants Services Active footwear Active Sportswear TV Media Retail Radio Internet Publications
Economic Impact Model (Meek, 1997) Associated economic impact which is monies spent by sports participants, spectators, and sponsors 1995: Sport industry economic size for $152 billions with an additional $259 billion in economic activity generated by sport.
Sport Activity Model (Li, Hofacre, & Mahoney, 2001) • Proposed a model based on the single characteristic that differentiates the sport industry from other industries: sport activities • Firms and organizations that produce sport activities • Firms and organizations that provide products and services to support sport activities • Firms and organizations that sell and trade products that support sport activities
Sport Activity Model (Li, Hofacre, & Mahoney, 2001) Support Sector VI State, Municipal Sport Councils & Authorities Support Sector I Administration & Regulatory bodies SPORT PRODUCING SECTOR Professional and semi-pro teams Intercollegiate teams Municipal and County Recreations Sport/Fitness Clubs Independent Sport Entities (e.g., personal trainers) Support Sector V Sport Management (marketing, public Relations, events, Agents) Support Sector II Sport Goods Manufacture Wholesale & Retail Support Sector IV Sport Media Support Sector III Facilities and Buildings
Unique features of Sport Management: A couple of examples • Sport Marketing • Sport consumed as quickly as produced • Not accompanied by guarantees of satisfaction
Unique features of Sport Management: A couple of examples • Financial Structures • Revenues are generated from activities extraneous to the primary source of interest (the event) such as television rights, concessions, road games returns, parking • Colleges such as A&M use students fees, private donations, taxes, rentals, or licensing fees. Sports need to attract individuals that are often willing to spend more money for peripherals items than on the event itself – this presents a rather unique circumstance for the sport manager
Unique features of Sport Management: A couple of examples • Social Institution • Sport offers a distinctive social activity that can be the basis of an individual’s or group’s social identity • Managers social responsibility in marketing, promoting
Future Issues for Sport Management • Infusion of technology • Changes in sport delivery • Ethics • Gender, race and class issues • Academic integrity and sport • Preparation of athletes (youth sports and beyond) • Owner’s, player’s, and fan’s loyalties • Social Responsibility • Advertising and sponsorships • Tax payers and facilities • Sport gambling Not too far removed from some of the issues discussed in Sport Psychology section