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6. WinForms: GUI Programming in

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  1. 6. WinForms: GUI Programming in .NET

  2. Objectives “.NET supports two types of form-based apps, WinForms and WebForms. WinForms are the traditional, desktop GUI apps. The great news is that Visual Studio .NET enables quick, drag-and-drop construction of form-based applications…” • Event-driven, code-behind programming • Visual Studio .NET • WinForms • Controls

  3. Part 1 • Event-driven, code-behind programming…

  4. Event-driven applications • Idea is very simple: • individual user actions are translated into “events” • events are passed, 1 by 1, to application for processing • this is how most GUIs are programmed… GUI App

  5. GUI-based events • Mouse move • Mouse click • Mouse double-click • Key press • Button click • Menu selection • Change in focus • Window activation • etc.

  6. Code-behind • Events are handled by methods that live behind visual interface • known as "code-behind" • our job is to program these methods…

  7. Call-backs • Events are a call from object back to us… • How is connection made? • setup by code auto-generated by Visual Studio

  8. Part 2 • Visual Studio .NET…

  9. Visual Studio .NET (VS.NET) • A single IDE for all forms of .NET development • from class libraries to form-based apps to web services • and using C#, VB, C++, J#, etc.

  10. design run break Basic operation • Visual Studio operates in one of 3 modes: • design • run • break • When in doubt, check the title bar of VS…

  11. Example: a windowing application • GUI apps are based on the notion of forms and controls… • a form represents a window • a form contains 0 or more controls • a control interacts with the user • Let's create a GUI app in a series of steps…

  12. Step 1 • Create a new project of type “Windows Application” • a form will be created for you automatically…

  13. Step 2 — GUI design • Select desired controls from toolbox… • hover mouse over toolbox to reveal • drag-and-drop onto form • position and resize control

  14. GUI design cont’d… • A simple calculator: • Position and configure controls • click to select • set properties via Properties window

  15. Step 3 — code design • “Code behind” the form… • Double-click the control you want to program • reveals coding window

  16. Step 4 — run mode • Run!

  17. Break mode? • Easily triggered in this application via invalid input…

  18. Working with Visual Studio • In Visual Studio, you work in terms of source files, projects & solutions • Source files contain code • end in .cs, .vb, etc. • Project files represent 1 assembly • used by VS to keep track of source files • all source files must be in the same language • end in .csproj, .vbproj, etc. • Solution (*.sln) files keep track of projects • so you can work on multiple projects

  19. Part 3 • WinForms…

  20. WinForms • Another name for traditional, Windows-like GUI applications • vs. WebForms, which are web-based • Implemented using FCL • hence portable to any .NET platform

  21. object Abstraction • FCL acts as a layer of abstraction • separates WinForm app from underlying platform instance of FCL class System.Windows.Forms.Form CLR Windows OS

  22. Form properties • Form properties typically control visual appearance: • AutoScroll • BackgroundImage • ControlBox • FormBorderStyle (sizable?) • Icon • Location • Size • StartPosition • Text (i.e. window's caption) • WindowState (minimized, maximized, normal) Form1 form; form = new Form1(); form.WindowState = FormWindowState.Maximized; form.Show();

  23. Form methods form.Hide(); . . . form.Show(); • Actions you can perform on a form: • Activate: give this form the focus • Close: close & release associated resources • Hide: hide, but retain resources to show form later • Refresh: redraw • Show: make form visible on the screen, & activate • ShowDialog: show modally

  24. Form events • Events you can respond to: • bring up properties window • double-click on event name • Load: occurs just before form is shown for first time • Closing: occurs as form is being closed (ability to cancel) • Closed: occurs as form is definitely being closed • Resize: occurs after user resizes form • Click: occurs when user clicks on form's background • KeyPress: occurs when form has focus & user presses key

  25. Example • Ask user before closing form: private void Form1_Closing(object sender, System.ComponentModel.CancelEventArgs e) { DialogResult r; r = MessageBox.Show("Do you really want to close?", "MyApp", MessageBoxButtons.YesNo, MessageBoxIcon.Question, MessageBoxDefaultButton.Button1); if (r == DialogResult.No) e.Cancel = true; }

  26. Part 4 • Controls…

  27. Controls • User-interface objects on the form: • labels • buttons • text boxes • menus • list & combo boxes • option buttons • check boxes • etc.

  28. object object object object object object Abstraction • Like forms, controls are based on classes in the FCL: • System.Windows.Forms.Label • System.Windows.Forms.TextBox • System.Windows.Forms.Button • etc. • Controls are instances of these classes

  29. Who creates all these objects? • Who is responsible for creating control instances? • code is auto-generated by Visual Studio • when form object is created, controls are then created…

  30. Naming conventions • Set control's name via Name property • A common naming scheme is based on prefixes: • cmdOK refers to a command button control • lstNames refers to a list box control • txtFirstName refers to a text box control

  31. Labels • For static display of text • used to label other things on the form • used to display read-only results • Interesting properties: • Text: what user sees • Font: how he/she sees it

  32. Command buttons • For the user to click & perform a task • Interesting properties: • Text: what user sees • Font: how he/she sees it • Enabled: can it be clicked • Interesting events: • Click: occurs when button is "pressed" private void cmdAdd_Click(...) { int i, j, k; i = System.Convert.ToInt32( this.txtNum1.Text ); j = System.Convert.ToInt32( this.txtNum2.Text ); k = i + j; MessageBox.Show( "Sum = " + k.ToString() ); }

  33. Text boxes • Most commonly used control! • for displaying text • for data entry • Lots of interesting features…

  34. Text box properties • Basic properties: • Text: denotes the entire contents of text box (a string) • Modified: has text been modified by user? (True / False) • ReadOnly: set if you want user to view text, but not modify • Do you want multi-line text boxes? • MultiLine: True allows multiple lines of text • Lines: array of strings, one for each line in text box • ScrollBars: none, horizontal, vertical, or both

  35. Text box events • Interesting events: • Enter, Leave: occurs on change in focus • KeyPress: occurs on ascii keypress • KeyDown, KeyUp: occurs on any key combination • TextChanged: occurs whenever text is modified • Validating and Validated • Validating gives you a chance to cancel on invalid input

  36. List Boxes • Great for displaying / maintaining list of data • list of strings • list of objects (list box calls ToString() to display) Customer[] customers; . . // create & fill array with objects... . // display customers in list box foreach (Customer c in customers) this.listBox1.Items.Add(c); // display name of selected customer (if any) Customer c; c = (Customer) this.listBox1.SelectedItem; if (c == null) return; else MessageBox.Show(c.Name);

  37. Just the tip of the iceberg… • Menus, dialogs, toolbars, etc. • Thousands of additional controls • .NET and ActiveX • right-click on Toolbox • "Customize Toolbox"

  38. Summary • Event-driven programming is very intuitive for GUI apps • Forms are the first step in GUI design • each form represents a window on the screen • form designer enables drag-and-drop GUI construction • Users interact primarily with form's controls • labels, text boxes, buttons, etc. • implies that GUI programming is control programming

  39. References • Books: • R. Grimes, "Developing Applications with Visual Studio .NET" • Best books on building GUIs are VB-based: • J. Savage, "The VB.NET Coach" (introductory) • F. Balena, "Programming Microsoft VB .NET (Core Reference)" (broad coverage, intermediate level)

  40. Lab? • Work on lab #3, "WinForms"…