An Overview of Kalamazoo County - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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An Overview of Kalamazoo County

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An Overview of Kalamazoo County

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  1. An Overview of Kalamazoo County This Overview in PowerPoint format was originally prepared for a class of Leadership Kalamazoo, a program of the Regional Chamber of Commerce devoted to preparing diverse groups of citizens by nurturing leadership skills and promoting an understanding of the community. It was assembled by the Kalamazoo Community Foundation as part of its staff’s community involvement. Historical and legal displays are used and were gained with the help of Pat Norris and Tom Deitz of the Kalamazoo Valley Museum and Duane Triemstra, Tom Canny, and Tim Snow of Kalamazoo County Government as well as the internet. The presentation is is intended for instructional purposes and not as an academically researched document. Names, dates, and other events have not been confirmed by research in official government records and local jurisdiction maps are approximate. Additionally, the presentation is intended for narration in conjunction with the presentation of the PowerPoint document, although some informative slides have been incorporated for this link. The presentation will be updated from time to time. Please call Wes Freeland at the Kalamazoo Community Foundation, 269-381-4416, or e-mail him at wfreeland@kalfound.org for any suggestions you might have. It was requested to be linked to the significant efforts of Dr. Kiran Cunningham and Dr. Hannah McKinney, Associate Professors at Kalamazoo College, in land use planning and growth and, therefore, this brief background was prepared. It begins when things were mighty cold here. Please enjoy it.

  2. Michigan as it appeared 14,500 years ago 1 Approximate location of present day Kalamazoo County

  3. Michigan as it appeared 13,000 years ago

  4. After the Glaciers As the climate became warmer and drier, between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago, a cool mesic hardwood forest with ash, oak, elm, maple, birch, and hickory trees grew in the midwest. About 8,300 years ago, the climate became substantially warmer and drier, and within the relatively short time of 500 to 800 years, most of the forests in southwestern Michigan died out or got burned down, except along stream banks, and prairies spread over the landscape.  During the last 1,000 years the climate has become slightly cooler and wetter, making conditions more favorable to trees. 

  5. The Moundbuilders From this Transition Period Came Our Earliest Residents

  6. Following the Moundbuilders, the earliest written records tell of the Sioux frequently occupying the region followed by the Mascoutin and the Miami and then lastly by the Pottawatomi Tribe, a branch of the greater Algonquin people.

  7. In 1680 the first settlers journeyed through Prairie Ronde and Climax

  8. The Northwest Territory was created- July 13 1787

  9. The Northwest Territory The Ordinance of July 13, 1787 provided "...there shall be formed in said territory, not less than three nor more than five states..." The original boundaries were defined as: Eastern State (numbers 1,2,3,4); Middle State (numbers 5,6,7,8,9) and Western State (numbers 10,11,12,13,14,15). These divisions are marked by broken lines on the map. Congress later decided to divide the Northwest Territory into the states of Ohio (1803), Indiana (1816), Illinois (1818), Michigan (1837), Wisconsin (1848) and Minnesota (1858); as shown by the heavy solid lines on the map. Map Source: Biographical Directory-General Assemblyof Ohio 1929-1930: Columbus, 1931.

  10. Indian Treaty of 1795 Opened the Northwest Territory to Settlement And set aside the Match-e-b-nash-e-wish Reservation, a large portion of what was to become Kalamazoo County

  11. According to Dr. Willis Dunbar’s Kalamazoo and How it Grew the first settler of the area was probably a British fur trader named Burrell who in 1795 spent the winter at his trading post near what is now Riverside Cemetery. Winter of 1795

  12. The Indian (Chicago) Treaty of 1821 opened Match-e-b-nash-e-wishto settlement Then The Indian Treaty of 1833in part reads ARTICLE 3d--All the Indians residing on the said reservations in Michigan shall remove therefrom within three years from this date --

  13. The Building of Present Day Kalamazoo County Frenchman Numaiville 1st permanent Trading Post Bazel Harrison another early Settler 1828 Late 1828 Enoch Harris first African American Settler Titus Bronson June 21, 1829 June 20, 1831

  14. Brady Township Formed 11-15-1829 Brady Township comprised the 576 square miles representing what is now Kalamazoo County. However, Brady Township also included present day Barry county and all unorganized lands as far north as the Grand River

  15. Kalamazoo County 7-30-1830 Included Barry, Calhoun and Eaton counties

  16. And then the structuring began for present day Kalamazoo County

  17. Kalamazoo County - 1831 Arcadia Township 7-30-1831 Bronson Village3-12-1831 Brady Township Village of Schoolcraft 10-5-1831

  18. Kalamazoo County – 1832/1833 Arcadia Township Richland Township 5-12-1832 Bronson Village Brady Township Village of Schoolcraft

  19. Kalamazoo County – 1834/1835 Arcadia Township Richland Township Bronson Village Comstock Township 3-7-1834 Brady Township Village of Schoolcraft

  20. Kalamazoo County - 1836 Richland Township KalamazooTownship 3-3-1836 Village of Augusta 1836 Kalamazoo Village 3-3-1836 Comstock Township Brady Township Village of Schoolcraft

  21. Kalamazoo County – 1836 (continued) Richland Township Kalamazoo Township Village of Augusta Kalamazoo Village Comstock Township Pavilion Township 3-23-1836 Village of Schoolcraft Prairie Ronde Township 3-23-1836 Brady Township

  22. original scale 1:2,500,000 U.S.G.S. 1972 limited update 1990 (301K) MICHIGANAdmitted as a State January 26,1837

  23. Kalamazoo County - 1837 Cooper Township 3-11-1837 Richland Township Village of Augusta Kalamazoo Village Village of Galesburg 9-8-1837 Kalamazoo Township Comstock Township Pavilion Township Climax Township 12-30-1837 Village of Schoolcraft Prairie Ronde Township Brady Township

  24. Kalamazoo County – 1838/1839 Ross Township 3-21-1839 Alamo Township 3-6-1838 Cooper Township Richland Township Village of Augusta Kalamazoo Township Oshtemo Township 3-22-1839 Charleston Township 3-6-1838 Comstock Township Kalamazoo Village Village of Galesburg Texas Township 3-6-1838 Portage Township 3-23-1838 Pavilion Township Climax Township Village of Schoolcraft Prairie Ronde Township Brady Township

  25. Kalamazoo County – 1840/1845 Ross Township Alamo Township Cooper Township Richland Township Village of Augusta Kalamazoo Township Oshtemo Township Charleston Township Comstock Township Kalamazoo Village Village of Galesburg Texas Township Portage Township 3-23-1838 Pavilion Township Climax Township Village of Schoolcraft Prairie Ronde Township Schoolcraft Township 2-12-1842 Brady Township 2-12-1842

  26. Kalamazoo County - 1846/1888 Village of Richland 3-18-1871 Alamo Township 3-6-1838 Cooper Township Richland Township Ross Township Village of Augusta Kalamazoo Township Oshtemo Township 3-22-1839 Charleston Township Comstock Township City of Kalamazoo 4-14-1884 Village of Galesburg Texas Township 3-6-1838 Portage Township 3-23-1838 Pavilion Township Climax Township Village of Schoolcraft Prairie Ronde Township Schoolcraft Township Brady Township Wakeshma Township 3-25-1846

  27. Kalamazoo County – 1899/1963 Village of Richland Alamo Township 3-6-1838 Cooper Township Richland Township Ross Township City of Parchment 2-24-1939 Village of Augusta Kalamazoo Township Oshtemo Township 3-22-1839 Charleston Township Comstock Township City of Kalamazoo Galesburg City 1931 Village of Climax 1899 Texas Township 3-6-1838 City of Portage 12-31-63 Pavilion Township Climax Township Village of Schoolcraft Prairie Ronde Township Schoolcraft Township Brady Township Wakeshma Township

  28. Kalamazoo County – 1964/2003 Richland Village Alamo Township Cooper Charter Township Richland Township Ross Township City of Parchment Augusta Village Kalamazoo Charter Township Comstock Charter Township Oshtemo Charter Township Charleston Township Kalamazoo Charter Township City of Kalamazoo City of Galesburg Village of Climax Texas Charter Township City of Portage Pavilion Township Climax Township Village of Schoolcraft Village of Vicksburg Prairie Ronde Township Schoolcraft Township Brady Township Wakeshma Township

  29. Whew! We’re still not done – let’s look at the property tax structure

  30. Cooper Charter Township From Nine Dozen Schools to 4 Richland Village Alamo Township Richland Township Ross Township 6 Kalamazoo Charter Township City of Parchment Nine Public School Districts 1 – Climax Scotts 2 – Comstock 3 – Galesburg/Augusta 4 – Gull Lake 5 – Kalamazoo 6 – Parchment 7 – Portage 8 – Schoolcraft 9 - Vicksburg Augusta Village Comstock Charter Township Oshtemo Charter Township Charleston Township Kalamazoo Charter Township 2 City of Kalamazoo 3 City of Galesburg 5 Village of Climax Texas Charter Township City of Portage Pavilion Township Climax Township 7 1 Village of Schoolcraft Village of Vicksburg Prairie Ronde Township Schoolcraft Township Brady Township Wakeshma Township 9 8

  31. County Four Cities Five Villages Fifteen Townships Twelve Library Districts Fifteen Primary School Districts Five Intermediate School Districts Three Community College Districts Three Downtown Development Authorities Four TIFA and two LDFA Districts Today’s Kalamazoo CountyProperty Tax Entities

  32. Your Property Tax Bills County Tax Bill LDFAs City or Township Tax Bill $ Village Tax Bill School Tax Bill KRESA Tax Bill KVCC Tax Bill Library Tax Bill Development Authority Tax Bill TIFAs $ $

  33. Now a look at the Structure and Authority of Michigan Municipalities

  34. Richland Village Alamo Township CooperCharterTownship Richland Township Ross Township City of Parchment Augusta Village Kalamazoo CharterTownship 25 Municipal Governments Comstock CharterTownship Oshtemo Charter Township Charleston Township Kalamazoo Charter Township City of Kalamazoo City of Galesburg Village of Climax Texas Charter Township City of Portage Pavilion Township Climax Township Village of Schoolcraft Village of Vicksburg Prairie Ronde Township Schoolcraft Township Brady Township Wakeshma Township

  35. Legal Foundation of Michigan Local Governments

  36. County Governments • Created by the Territorial Legislature • A creature of the State • Predisposed to meet a wide variety of constitutional, statute, and case-law responsibilities and services enacted over 170 years. • General powers enable the provision of non-mandated services • Funded by property taxes and a myriad of other state and federal revenues • De-minimus ordinance making authority • Highly dominated by elected officials • A trapezoid structure

  37. Charter County Governments • Initiated by county board resolution or by petition • Provides for elected county executive • veto power • Nothing else changes including ordinance making authority

  38. Home Rule Cities • Created by incorporation under Michigan statutory authority • Provides a variety of specific general services • Funded by property taxes and other revenues • Has significant ordinance-making authority • Highly dominated by appointed officials • An almost classic pyramid structure

  39. General Law Townships • Created by Territorial Legislature or Michigan legislative act • Provides specific general services authorized by statute • Funded by property taxes and other revenues • Has significant ordinance-making authority • Highly dominated by elected officials • Generally a pyramid structure • Can be annexed with approved ballot resolution in both units • or if population density is less than 100 in the area to be annexed the approval of the State Boundary Commission only is required

  40. Charter Townships • Created by incorporation under Michigan statutory authority • Can occur by ballot question or township board resolution • Must provide certain basic services such as police, fire, etc. • Millage rate is higher if approved by the people • Cannot be annexed without a vote of the people of the annexing unit and the unit proposed for annexation or by agreement of both units under Michigan Act 425 (revenue sharing) for periods of up to 50 years

  41. Villages • Created by incorporation under Michigan statutory authority • Provides specific general services • Funded by property taxes and other revenues • Has some ordinance-making authority • Dominated by administrative officials • Generally a pyramid structure • Can add or subtract land with approval of county commission

  42. Kalamazoo County – a beautiful community!