Plant Family Holiday RecipeBrassicaceae, Solanaceae, Capparidaceae, Rutaceae, Oleaceae, Apiaceae, Piperaceae • 1 head cauliflower • 1 pint cherry tomatoes • 1 tablespoon drained capers • 4 teaspoons fresh lemon juice • 2 teaspoons olive oil • 1/4 cup fresh parsley leaves • 1/4 teaspoon salt • 1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper Recipe Card 1 of 2
Plant Family Holiday RecipeBrassicaceae, Solanaceae, Capparidaceae, Rutaceae, Oleaceae, Apiaceae, Piperaceae • Directions • 1. In 5- to 6-quart saucepot, place 1 inch water and steamer basket; heat to boiling on high. Remove leaves and center of core from Brassicaceae. • 2. Place Brassicaceae, core side down, in steamer basket. Cover saucepot with tight-fitting lid. Cook on medium 10 minutes or until Brassicaceae is fork-tender. • 3. Meanwhile, in food processor with knife blade attached, pulse Solanaceae, Capparidaceae, Rutaceae juice, Oleaceae oil, chopped Apiaceae, 1/4 teaspoon salt, and 1/8 teaspoon ground Piperaceae until coarsely chopped, about 15 seconds. Spoon SCROAP relish over Brassicaceae to serve. Recipe Card 2 of 2
Common Names for Plants • Common names are created by people doing the everyday living of life. They are words in the language of the layman and thus are easy to understand and use. • Common names develop in the language or culture of a given people and may not be useful to people with a different language or culture. • The multiplicity of common names can cause confusion, and common names are not precise enough to be used in serious scientificstudies.
Scientific Names for Plants • Scientific names evolved out of the study and reporting or plants in books starting during the period from the 13th to 18th centuries. • Because the language of educated people was Latin, names of plants were written in Latin. • Sometimes the descriptive names became very long and became known as polynomials since they both named and described the plant.
Polynomial Nomenclature Example • Ranunculus calycibus retroflexis, pedunculis falcatis, caule erecto, foliis compositis • Aka “the buttercup with bent-back sepals, curved flower-stalks, erect stems and compound leaves”. • Cumbersome??? You bet!
So… • In 1753, Carolus Linnaeus, (aka Carl Linne ), a Swedish naturalist, published a very influential work called Species Plantarum (Species of Plants) in which he began using binonmial nomenclature instead. • Binomials are two-word names written in Latin. (Genus and species) • Linnaeus was the first to use binomial nomenclature consistently, and he is credited as being the father of modern scientific nomenclature, both botanical and zoological.
Thus… • Today the use of binomial nomenclature is universally accepted and changed little since the time it was first applied and perfected by Linnaeus. • Remember then, a species name is a two-word name that consists of a generic name and a specific epithet. The specific epithet by itself is not a species name.
And to continue… • In binomial nomenclature, both the generic name and the specific epithet (genus and species) are italicized or underlined. The first letter of the generic name (genus) is capitalized, and it is recommended by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature that the specific epithet always be written in lower case. • Thus, the new pine species (let’s pretend here) named for President-elect Obama and published would bePinus obamaii.
Why, oh why, obamaii??? • The suffix, -ii, which is the possessive case for the Latinized version of a man’s name [or, -iae for a woman’s name], is the equivalent of –’s in English. • Thus, Pinus obamaii could be commonly called Obama’s pine since we know who HE is. • In the future then, perhaps, Pinus clintoniae or Pinus paliniae???
And, what about AUTHORITIES??? • The individual or individuals who are responsible for giving plants their names are known as authorities. • The names of these individuals are often abbreviated if too long. • Examples: • Lewisia rediviva Pursh • Datura stranmonium L.
Lotus heermannii (Dur. & Hilg.) Greene • What does this mean? • The species was originally named by two naturalists by the names of E. M. Durand and T. C. Hilgard as Hosackia heermannii. • Several years later, E. L. Green, another botanist, concluded that the genus Hosackia should be merged with the genus Lotus. • Green transferred the specific epithet heermannii from Hosackia to Lotus. • And, it appears that the genus Hosackia ceased to exist.
Lotus heermannii (Dur. & Hilg.) Greene • So… • Durand and Hilgard (the parenthetical authorities) get credit for having published the epithet, heermannii. • Greene, (the combining authority) gets credit for transferring the epithet to Lotus and publishing the combination Lotus heermannii.
And, remember: • Where the species name is always italicized or underlined, the authorities are not. • Example: • Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. & Laws. • (This means also that botanists Laws. & Laws. published the name proposed by Dougl.)
Botanical Latin • Botanical Latin is an internationally used technical language developed over the past 250 years for the naming and descriptions of plants. It is accepted by botanists and horticulturists worldwide as the medium for naming new plants. • We used Botanical Latin 4th Edition by William T. Stearn as a standard of reference for our laboratory exercise on Botanical Latin.
More on Botanical Latin… Sic enim potiusloquamur:melius est reprehendant nos grammatici quam non intelligant populi. “Let us rather then declare: it is better that the grammarians censure us than that the public does not understand us.” St. Augustine of Hippo (A.D. 354-430)
Botanical Nomenclature • The principles and rules of botanical nomenclature have been developed and adapted by a series of international botanical congresses (IBC) and are listed in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (sometimes still referred to as the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature) or, the ICBN. • The ICBN is a book with a new edition after each IBC and it contains the most current rules and other guidelines for botanical nomenclature.
IBC • International Botanical Congress (IBC) is a large-scale meeting of botanists in all scientific fields, from all over the world. Authorized by the International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS), congresses are held every six years with the venue circulating around the world. The latest was the XVII IBC in Vienna, Austria, in 2005, a hundred years after the second congress, II IBC, was held in that same city. The next IBC will be held in Melbourne, Australia, 24-30 July 2011.
I 1900 Paris II 1905 Vienna III 1910 Brussels IV 1926 Ithaca, NY V 1930 Cambridge, UK VI 1935 Amsterdam VII 1950 Stockholm VIII 1954 Paris IX 1959 Montreal X 1964 Edinburgh, UK XI 1969 Seattle, WA XII 1975 Leningrad, USSR XIII 1981 Sydney XIV 1987 Berlin XV 1993 Tokyo XVI 1999 St. Louis, MO XVII 2005 Vienna XVIII 2011 Melbourne International Botanical CongressesIBC
IBCInternational Botanical Congress • The IBC has the power to alter the ICBN(International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.) Formally the power resides with the Plenary Session, but in practice this just approves the decisions of the Nomenclature Section. The Nomenclature Section meets before the actual Congress and deals with all proposals to modify the ICBN: this includes ratifying recommendations on conservation. To reduce the risk of a hasty decision the Nomenclature Section adopts a 60% majority as needed for any change.
ICBNInternational Code of Botanical Nomenclature • The major goal of the ICBN is to provide one correct name for each taxonomic group (or taxon) within a stable system of names (a classification). • The most current edition, published in 2006, of the ICBN would be from the IBC XVII session held in Vienna, Austria, in 2005. • The next revision of the ICBN will be printed after the IBC XVIII session scheduled to be held in Melbourne, Australia in July of 2011.
IBC and ICBN • Neither the IBC nor the ICBN have any executive or judicial power. The rules must be accepted or rejected on their own merits. There is no way, outside of peer pressure, to force a recalcitrant taxonomist into line. • For the rest of us, we must use the current edition of the ICBN as the final word on problems arising from the use of scientific names.
ICBN • TheICBN applies not only to plants, as they are now defined, but also to other organisms traditionally studied by botanists. This includes blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria); fungi, including chytrids, oomycetes, and slime molds; photosynthetic protists and taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups. There are special provisions in the ICBNfor some of these groups, as there are for fossils.
ICBN • For the naming of cultivated plants there is a separate code, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. This gives supplementary rules and recommendations.
Ole goes out one day to use the outhouse, and he finds Sven there. Sven has his wallet out, and he's throwing money down into the hole of the outhouse. Ole asks, “Uff da! Sven, watcha doin' dere, fella? You're throwing da five dollar bill and da ten dollar bill down into the hole of da outhouse! Vatcha doin' dat for?" Sven answers, “Vell, Ole, ven I pulled up my trousers, I dropped a nickel down dere—and I'm not going down into dat mess for yust a nickel!" Ole is on his deathbed. The doctor has told him he has only a few hours to live. He catches the scent of his favorite bars wafting through the air. With all the strength he can muster, he drags himself into the kitchen and sees a fresh pan cooling on the rack. He cuts one out and bites into the scrumptious cookie. Lena comes in, smacks his hand, and says, "Shame on you, Ole! Deese are for after da funeral!"
Cultivar Naming Trivia • Three new Minnesota-hardy roses with humorous Nordic names (Ole, Sven, and Lena) are no joke. And they're likely to sell faster than lefse at a church bazaar. –Star Tribune, Minneapolis/St. Paul- • The oversized, cartoonish plant tags feature Minnesota-speak such as "Ya, you betcha" and "Uff-da," as well as caricatures of a grinning Ole, a balding, myopic Sven and an apron-clad Lena with a kerchief pulled down to her schnoz. • Even the plant descriptions ("Oh, jeez, ya never saw anything so pretty") and planting directions ("One end smells good. Ya put the udder in da dirt") get the comic treatment.
Ole, Sven and Lena Roses…(Dev. by the University of Minnesota and sold by Bailey’s Nursery…no joke!) • Ole's flowers are pale pink (described as somewhere between "salmon" and "lutefisk"). Lena has "frilly pink and white" flowers and bright green foliage. And Sven's mauve- to violet-colored flowers are noted for their fragrance (?). • Go ahead and laugh. For generations, those nutty Norwegians -- Ole, Lena and their sidekick, Sven -- have been the butt of endless ethnic jokes. • But now they're getting a little respect, albeit in the oddest of places: the plant world.
General Principles ofBotanical Nomenclature • 1) Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological nomenclature. • A guiding principle in both botanical and zoological nomenclature is priority. The ICBN sets the formal starting date of plant nomenclature at 1 May 1753, the publication of Species Plantarum by Linnaeus (or at later dates for specified groups and ranks). For animals it is 1758.
Continuing…1) Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological nomenclature. • A plant and animal may have exactly the same binomial or ‘scientific’ name. • Tautonyms are not allowed in botanical nomenclature but are in zoological nomenclature (ie Bison bison)
General Principles ofBotanical Nomenclature • 2)The application of names of taxonomic groups is determined by nomenclatural types. • A botanical name is fixed to a taxon by a type. This is almost invariably dried plant material and is usually deposited and preserved in a herbarium, though it can be an image. Some type collections can be viewed online at the websites of the herbaria in question.
1) Holotype 2) Isotypes 3) Syntypes 4) Paratypes 5) Lectotype 6) Neotype A particular specimen designated as the permanent reference point for the name. Duplicate specimens of the holotype collected at the same time and the same place. Several specimens listed as reference points for the name. All of the specimens seen and cited by the author of the name. A type specimen later chosen from the paratypes. A new specimen chosen if none of the original specimens or types exist. Types of “TYPES”
General Principles ofBotanical Nomenclature • 3) The nomenclature of taxonomic groups is based on priority of publication. • This means that the first correctly published name for a taxon is the one to use. Any name published before May 1, 1753, has no standing as far as priority is concerned. Any binomial correctly published after that date must be considered for priority purposes.
General Principles ofBotanical Nomenclature • 4) Each taxonomic group with a particular circumscription, position, and rank can bear only one correct name. That is the earliest name that is in accordance with the rules, except in specified cases. • The concept of nomina conservanda allows the IBC to take special action to allow a more commonly recognized, but later published, name to replace an earlier and correct, but obscure name. After IBC action, the later name becomes known as the valid or conserved name. The name with the earlier publication date then becomes a rejected name.
Which one is given priority?Which one is totally against the rules? • The following names have been published for a species of dogbane (Apocynaceae). • Tabernaemontana amsonia L. 1762 • Amsonia tabernaemontana Walt. 1788 • Amsonia latifolia Michx. 1803 • Amsonia amsonia (L.) Britt. 1894
Why do names change? • Most commonly, a species will be renamed because it is discovered to be either more or less closely related to another species than was previously realized. As the first part of a binomial name is the genus, if the genus changes then the binomial name also needs to change. The second part of the species name, known as the epithet, is specific to the species however and can therefore be retained.
Amsonia tabernaemontana Walt.(Basionym: Tabernaemontana amsonia L.) • Basionym (or base-name) is a taxonomic term used in botany to refer to a previously valid binomial name of a species that has since been renamed and from which the new name is partially derived. • The basionym of Amsonia tabernaemontana Walt., for example, is Tabernaemontana amsonia L. Although the species was originally called Tabernaemontana amsonia by Linnaeus, botanist Walt. later transferred it to the genus Amsonia.
More on basionyms • The term basionym is defined by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclaure as a "name-bringing or epithet-bringing synonym. Consequently, for an earlier name to be described as a basionym the new name must retain some part of the earlier name, although not necessarily in its entirety. For example the gender may change as with Acrocarpia paniculata, the basionym of which is Fucus paniculatus. • Where an entirely new name (nomen novum) is created the term basionym is not used.
Now, going back just a little… • Lotus heermannii (Dur. & Hilg.) Greene • The species was originally named by two naturalists by the names of E. M. Durand and T. C. Hilgard as Hosackia heermannii. • Several years later, E. L. Green, another botanist, concluded that the genus Hosackia should be merged with the genus Lotus. • Green transferred the specific epithet heermannii from Hosackia to Lotus. • And, it appears that the genus Hosackia ceased to exist.
So, based on what we know… • Shouldn’t • Amsonia tabernaemontana Walt. • be • Amsonia tabernaemontana (L.) Walt. • ???????????????????????????????? • The only speculation I have for this seeming anomaly is that Walt. identified his plant A. tabernaemontana entirely independently of any knowledge of the previously identified Tabernaemontana amsonia L. which turned out to be the same plant. I couldn’t find any more history on this.
Now what about those synonyms?Example: Salsola iberica (Syn S. kali) • In botanical nomenclature, the synonym of a botanical name is a name that also applies to this same taxon. A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always "a synonym of ...". In botany, synonyms can be: • homotypic (or nomenclatural) • heterotypic (or taxonomic)
Botanical Synonyms • homotypic (or nomenclatural): having the same type. The Linnaean name Pinus abies L. has the same type as Picea abies (L.) H.Karst. When the latter is taken to be the correct name (there is almost complete consensus on that), Pinus abies is a homotypic synonym of Picea abies. However, if the species were regarded to belong to Pinus (now unlikely) the relationship would be reversed and Picea abies would become a homotypic synonym of Pinus abies.
Botanical Synonyms • heterotypic (or taxonomic): with a different type. Some botanists split the dandelion into many, quite restricted species. The name of each such species has its own type. When the dandelion is regarded as including all those small species, the names of all those species are heterotypic synonyms of Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg.
Botanical Synonyms • In botany it is not required that a synonym be a valid name: a listing of synonyms often contains names that for some reason did not make it as a formal name (unpublished or manuscript names), or have not yet been formally published. Such a synonym must have the form of a formal name: it must look like a proper 'Latin name'.
Botanical Synonyms • Unlike a basionym, a homotypic synonym need not share an epithet or name with the correct name. It only needs to share the type. For example the name Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg, has the same type as Leontodon taraxacum L. The latter is a homotypic synonym of Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg.
Illegitimate Names • Names that do not conform to the rules of nomenclature are called illegitimate. • It is against the rules to use a name that has already been published for a different kind of plant. These ‘later homonyms’ must be rejected. • And, as we already know, tautonyms (Cardinalis cardinalis, Bison bison) are allowed in zoological nomenclature but not in botanical nomenclature. • Certain procedures must be followed when a name is first published. If not followed, the name must be rejected though it may be resubmitted correctly for publication at a later date.
General Principles ofBotanical Nomenclature • 5) Scientific names are Latin or treated as Latin regardless of their derivation. • 6) The names of taxa above the genus level above have standardized suffixes that indicate the rank of the taxon. Family: -eae; Tribe: -oideae; Sub-family: -aceae; Order: -ales; Sub-class: -idae; Class: -opsida; Division: -ophyta; Kingdom: -phyta.
General Principles ofBotanical Nomenclature • 7) The rules of nomenclature are retroactive unless expressly limited. • Early botanists did not have a code of nomenclature. The rules have gradually developed to the present time. For instance, the requirement that a holotype be designated dates only from January 1, 1958.
Naming a Newly Discovered Plant • There are several steps that a taxonomist must follow to validly publish the name of a new plant. • 1) The name must be properly constructed and it should not be a name anyone has ever used before. • 2) The taxonomist must clearly indicate the rank of the taxon being described.
Naming a Newly Discovered Plant(cont) • 3) A specimen must be designated as the holotype (since 1958) and assigned to a herbarium. • 4) The taxonomist must publish a description or diagnosis written in botanical Latin. A diagnosis is a brief statement that indicates the ways in which the newly described taxon differs from other plants.