Outsourcing-are we exporting our pollution along with our jobs? Yes, most definitely we are. Alice Wang ENVR 230 11-08-07
Environmental Regulations • 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act • 1947 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act • 1948 Federal Water Pollution Control Act (also known as the Clean Water Act) • 1955 Clean Air Act • 1965 Shoreline Erosion Protection Act • 1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act • 1970 National Environmental Policy Act • 1970 Pollution Prevention Packaging Act • 1970 Resource Recovery Act • 1971 Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act • 1972 Coastal Zone Management Act • 1972 Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act • 1972 Ocean Dumping Act • 1973 Endangered Species Act • 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act
1974 Shoreline Erosion Control Demonstration Act • 1975 Hazardous Materials Transportation Act • 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act • 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act • 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act • 1978 Uranium Mill-Tailings Radiation Control Act • 1980 Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act • 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act • 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act • 1984 Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act • 1986 Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act • 1986 Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act • 1988 Indoor Radon Abatement Act • 1988 Lead Contamination Control Act • 1988 Medical Waste Tracking Act • 1988 Ocean Dumping Ban Act • 1988 Shore Protection Act • 1990 National Environmental Education Act
Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act 1981, cinematograph Act 1980Company Secretaries Act, 1980Contract Labor (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970Designs Act, 1911Employers Liability Act,1938Employees Provident Funds & Miscellaneous Provision Act, 1952 Employees State Insurance Act,1948Equal Remuneration Act,1976Factories Act,1948Indian Fatal Accidents ACt, 1855Indian Contract Act,1872Hire Purchase Act, 1972Industrial Dispute Act,1947Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951Indian Partnership Act, 1932Interest on Delayed Payment to Small Scale & Ancillary Industrial Undertaking Act, 1993Labour Laws (Exemption from furnishing Returns and Maintaining Register by Certain Establishments) Act, 1988Limitation Act 1963Minimum wages Act, 1948Monopolies & Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881Partition Act, 1893Payments of Bonus Act, 1965Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972Payment of Wages Act, 1936Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institution Act, 1993Sale of Goods Act, 1930Sales Promotion (Employees Conditions of service Act, 1976Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985Trade And Merchandise Marks Act, 1958Trade Unions Act, 1926The All India Service Act The Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1982Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules 1982Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) (Union Territories) Rules, 1983Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Rules 1988Cinematograph Film Rules, 1987Cinematograph (Certificate) Rules, 1983Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Central Rules, 1971Contract Labor (Regulation and Abolition) Central Rules, 1971-Construction ands Maintenance of Crèches Employee's Deposit-Linked Insurance Scheme 1976Employees Family Pension Scheme, 1971Employees Pension Scheme, 1995Employee's Provident Funds Scheme, 1952Employee's State Insurance (Central) Rules, 1950Employee's State Insurance (General) Regulations, 1950 Employee's State Insurance Corporation (General Provident Fund) Rules, 1995Equal Remuneration Rules, 1976Central Advisory Committee on Equal Remuneration Rules, 1991Industrial Disputes (Central) Rules, 1957Industrial Tribunal (Central Procedure) Rules, 1954Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Central Rules, 1946Land Acquisition (Companies) Rules, 1963Maternity Benefit (Mines and Circus) Rule 1963Minimum Wages (Central) Rules, 1950Payment of Bonus Rules, 1975Payment of Gratuity ( Central) Rules, 1972Payment of Wages (Procedure) Rules, 1937Payment of Wages (Manner of Recovery of Excess Deductions) Rules, 1966Personal Injuries (Compensation Insurance) Rules, 1972Personal Injuries (Compensation Insurance) Scheme, 1972Sales Promotion Employees (Condition of Service) Rules, 1976`Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (Financial and Administrative Powers) Rules, 1987.Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction Financial and Administrative Powers) Rule, 1987Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (Salaries and Allowances and Condition of Service of Chairman and oilier Members) Rules,1987Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (Secretary's Power and Duties) Rules, 1988Workmen's Compensation Rules, 1924Workmen's Compensation (Transfer of Money) Rules, 1935Workmen's Compensation Venue of Proceedings) Rules, 1996All India Service (Conduct) Rules, 1968The All India service (Discipline and Appeal) Rules, 1969, 1958The Workmen's Compensation Rules, 1924Partition Act, 1893
United States-Outsourcing What better way to describe outsourcing but through statistics? • 300,000-400,000 jobs have been given to overseas contractors, according to The National Review (May 3, 2004). • In December 2005, it was predicted that 1.4 million jobs would be outsourced between 2004 and 2008. • Meta Group estimates that offshore outsourcing will grow by more than 20% annually, increasing it from a $7 billion market in 2003 to a $10 billion market in 2005. • According to Deloitte Consulting, 2 million jobs will move from the United States and Europe to cheaper destinations in the financial services business alone. • The emigration of service jobs across all industries could be as high as 4 million. Forrester Research estimates that 3.3 million U.S. jobs and $136 billion in wages could be moved to such countries as India, China, and Russia by 2015.
Well basically… All these outsourcing statistics show that the offshore outsourcing trend is enormous and will just keep growing.
So, yes outsourcing is happening and has increased in the past few decades… but what does this mean in terms of environmental consequences?
Earth Democracy • Vandana Shiva, “Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability, and Peace.“ http://youtube.com/watch?v=DcRciFNHlyg
Let’s talk about…China “China, where factories are springing up like dandelions and whose labor force is cheap and plentiful” -Gristmill Environmental News and Commentary
Pollution Problems “Public health is reeling. Pollution has made cancer China’s leading cause of death, the Ministry of Health says. Ambient air pollution alone is blamed for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water.Chinese cities often seem wrapped in a toxic gray shroud. Only 1 percent of the country’s 560 million city dwellers breathe air considered safe by the European Union.” (New York Times) “Toxic air and water are killing an estimated 710,000 to 760,000 Chinese each year. Even in a country of more than 1.3 billion people, that is a shocking toll.” (Washington Post)
Pollution Problems • Many people living in southern China are dying from living in Shangba or other “Cancer Villages” (BBC) • 10% less light due to Asian Brown Cloud • Official figures say 400,000 Chinese citizens die a year from diseases related to air pollution, and, according to the World Bank, 16 of the 20 most polluted cities in the world are in China.
Conclusion on Outsourcing pollution? • A good percentage of China’s pollution already comes from manufacturing products for consumption in the United States. • The same is clearly true for other countries. • Do we outsource pollution along with our jobs? • Yes we do, very much so =(
Bibliography • http://www.grinningplanet.com/2004/09-07/plutocracy-democracy-capitalism-article.htm • http://www.grinningplanet.com/2005/03-08/WTO-global-trade-democracy-outsourcing-jobs-article.htm • http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=07/09/14/1422203 • http://socialissues.wiseto.com/Topics/Outsourcing/ • http://www.planetizen.com/node/27014 • http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/37421.html • http://www.salon.com/tech/htww/2006/08/22/kuznets/ • http://www.cmu.edu/homepage/collaboration/2007/summer/outsourcing-pollution.shtml • http://itsgettinghotinhere.org/2007/09/15/not-in-my-country-outsourcing-pollution/ • http://www.rttsweb.com/outsourcing/statistics/ • http://www.cyfuture.com/outsourcing-statistics.htm • http://itsgettinghotinhere.org/2007/08/26/in-china-global-environmental-injustice-kills-millions/ • http://itsgettinghotinhere.org/2007/08/26/in-china-global-environmental-injustice-kills-millions/