Investigating the Benefit of a Novel HIV/AIDS Information Workbook in a School Life Skills Program in Western Cape, South Africa
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a new HIV/AIDS information workbook in a school life skills program for adolescents in Western Cape, South Africa. The high prevalence of HIV in the region makes it imperative to explore innovative teaching aids to educate students about the risks of the disease.
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About Investigating the Benefit of a Novel HIV/AIDS Information Workbook in a School Life Skills Program in Western Cape, South Africa
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1. Investigating the benefit of a novel HIV/AIDS information workbook as a teaching aid in a school life-skills program in the Western Cape, South Africa Diane Gray 1 , Anne Betzel 1 , Lesley Workman 2 , Paul Roux 1,3 1 G25 Paediatric HIV/AIDS Service, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa 2 South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, University of Cape Town, South Africa 3 School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
2. Background South African adolescents are at high risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) High community HIV prevalence Adolescents experiment and take risks Adolescents have sex
3. HIV prevalence (%) among 1524 years old, by sex, selected countries, 20052007 0 5 10 15 20 25 % HIV prevalence Swaziland South Africa Zimbabwe Central African Republic Cte d'Ivoire Sierra Leone Rwanda Haiti Guinea Ethiopia Benin DR Congo Niger Senegal Cambodia India Uganda Chad Dominican Republic Mali Female Male 2.10 Source : Demographic and Health Surveys and other national population-based surveys with HIV testing.
4. Percentage of young people who have first sex before age 15, by sex 4.6 5 10 15 20 0 1998-2002 2003-2007 Year % Male Female Source : Measure DHS.
5. A higher level of HIV-related knowledge may Raise appropriate concern about personal risk Increase likelihood that sex partners discuss HIV/AIDS Contribute to demystifying conceptions that reinforce negative stigma
6. Comprehensive knowledge of HIV among young people (ages 1524), 19992007 19992003 2010 20042007 0 20 40 60 80 100 Year Male Female 2005 Target 2010 Target Source : MEASURE DHS (2008) 4.3 % all 5 questions correct
7. Comprehensive knowledge of HIV among young people, by type of question 4.4 Males Females (%) correct All 5 questions are correct Mosquitos do not transmit HIV A healthy looking person can have HIV Having only one faithful partner can protect against HIV Condoms can prevent HIV 0 40 80 100 20 60 Sharing food does not transmit HIV Source : UNGASS Country Progress Reports 2008. QUESTION
8. Previous studies have suggested that HIV/AIDS education in both junior and high schools has a positive effect on: adolescents HIV/AIDS related knowledge attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS shift in subjective norms and behavioural intentions toward having sexual intercourse Improving adolescents HIV/AIDS knowledge and understanding is desirable
9. Aim To investigate the impact on adolescents HIV/AIDS related knowledge of the Extra Time information workbook used in a high school life- skills program
10. Method Conducted in a high school in the Cape Town metropolitan area All classes in each grade (8-12) completed a Knowledge Questionnaire The Extra Time workbook was introduced into the life skills curricula of randomly selected classes in each grade (8-12) at the school. The questionnaire was completed 6 months later after completion of the life skill classes by grade 8-11. The grade 12 classes did not participate in follow-up.
11. Method Written parental consent was required in order to participate Ethics approval was granted by the University of Cape Town Research Ethics Committee Permission to conduct study was received from the Department of Education and the School Health Service of the Dept. of Health of the Provincial Government of the Western Cape
12. Extra Time Magazine Developed in 2005 by Grassroots Soccer , Sports for Life, AED, Health Communication Partnership, USAID and John Hopkins University Communication Programs www.grassrootsoccer.org
13. Knowledge Questionnaire Section 1 22 biological questions Section 2 22 life style questions Anonymous age, gender and grade recorded
14. Results 966 adolescents completed the initial knowledge questionnaire 137 adolescents from 4 classes (1 each from grade 8-11) received the Extra Time workbook as life skills teaching 8g, 9a, 10d, 11a 135 participant adolescents and 343 adolescents from 11 comparison classes completed the repeat knowledge questionnaire after 6 months 9b, 9f, 10a, 10b, 10c, 10e, 10f, 10g, 11b, 11c, 11d
15. Pre-Workbook Questionnaire Scores by grade Female N(%) Age Mean (SD) Score out of 22 for biological section Mean (%) Score out of 22 for life style section Mean (%) Overall score out of 44 Mean (%) Grade 8 N=278 124(46%) 14(0.7) 11.4 (57%) 14.3 (65%) 25.7 (58%) Grade 9 N=182 95(52%) 15(1) 11 (50%) 14.2 (65%) 25.4 (58%) Grade 10 N=223 110(51%) 16(1.2) 12 (55%) 15 (68%) 26.7 (61%) Grade 11 N=152 91(60%) 17(1.3) 14 (64%) 17 (77%) 31 (70%) Grade 12 N=131 78(60%) 17(0.9) 14.6 (66%) 17.2 (78%) 31.8 (72%) Total N=966 498(52%) 15(1.7) 12.3 (56%) 15.2 (69%) 27.5 (63%) Kruskal-Wallis p value P<0.001 P<0.001 P<0.001
16. Comprehensive knowledge of HIV among young people, by type of question 4.4 Males Females (%) correct All 5 questions are correct Mosquitos do not transmit HIV A healthy looking person can have HIV Having only one faithful partner can protect against HIV Condoms can prevent HIV 0 40 80 100 20 60 Sharing food does not transmit HIV Source : UNGASS Country Progress Reports 2008. Pre Workbook Scores
17. Demographics of participant and comparison groups Participant Group N=135 Comparison Group N=343 Total N=478 Age mean yrs (SD) 15 (1.2) 16 (1.5) 16 (1.5) p<0.05 Females (%) 76 (56.7) 196 (57.3) 272 (57) P=0.39 Grade 8 41 0 41 Grade 9 24 64 88 Grade 10 28 175 203 Grade 11 42 104 146
18. Comparison of pre-workbook Knowledge Questionnaire scores in participants and non-participant classes Participants N=137 Non participants N=829 T-test p value Biological score Mean (SD) 12.5 (3) 12.3 (3.3) P=0.48 Life skills score Mean (SD) 15.5 (3.6) 15.2 (4) P=0.37 Overall score Mean (SD) 27.9 (6) 27.4 (6.5) P=0.36
19. Comparison of post-workbook Knowledge Questionnaire scores in participant and comparison groups Participants N=135 Comparisons N=344 T-test p value Biological score Mean (SD) 13.6 (3.4) 12.3 (3.3) P=0.0003 Life skills score Mean (SD) 16.1 (4.3) 15.6 (4) P=0.2 Overall score Mean (SD) 29.7 (7) 27.9 (6.5) P=0.009
20. Comparison of pre-workbook and post-workbook Knowledge Questionnaire scores in participant group Pre-exposure N=137 Post-exposure N=135 T-test p value Biological score Mean (SD) 12.5 (3) 13.6 (3.4) P=0.004 Life skills score Mean (SD) 15.4 (3.9) 16.1 (4.3) P=0.12 Overall score Mean (SD) 27.8 (6.4) 29 (8) P=0.11 In the participant group there was an increase in the biological section mean score. There was no significant improvement in life skills section or overall score. In the comparison group there was no difference in any of the mean scores on repeat Scoring.
21. Discussion HIV/AIDS related knowledge was fair in a Western Cape High School. Life skills knowledge was better than biological knowledge in all grades General HIV/AIDS knowledge increases with grade suggesting current life skills programmes are having some effect The workbook improved biological knowledge in the participant group, but had no significant effect in overall scores
22. We could not control for information leak We did not control life skills input for comparison classes Teachers were not trained in the use of the workbook as a teaching tool We did not assess other possible benefits: Behavioural outcomes Dissemination of information at home and community Effects on HIV/AIDS related attitiudes
23. Conclusions The Extra Time workbook may be a useful educational tool in school life skills programmes which It has been shown to have modest benefit in knowledge acquisition It is feasible for class teachers to use this workbook without additional training Results will be fed back to the Department of Education
24. Acknowledgements Co authors: Anne Betzel and Paul Roux Funding: Kidzpositive, PHRU, PEPFAR Staff and pupils of Ocean View High School