Renaissance and Reformation: A Rebirth of European Culture and Society
Explore the origins and impact of the Renaissance and Reformation in Europe, from the bubonic plague to the end of the 100 years war and the emergence of Italy as a center of artistic and intellectual innovation. Learn about the key figures, ideas, and movements that shaped this transformative period in history.
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1. Renaissance and Reformation Review A little R & R
2. European Renaissance
3. What does the term renaissance mean? R e b i r t h
4. What two main events ended that allowed the Renaissance to take place? The Bubonic Plague End of the 100 years war While not a specific event, the location of Italy played a large role in the beginning of the Renaissance. The increased trade let to a stable economy which enabled patrons to spend money on the arts.
5. How did Middle Eastern civilizations aid in Renaissance efforts? They had preserved Greek and Roman ideals These works were rediscovered and translated into vernacular language.
6. What was the name for focus on human potential and achievements? H u m a n i s m
7. The Renaissances emphasis on reason placed high priorities on using which methods to explain events? Scientific Observation
8. What term describes being worldly and concerned with the here and now? S e c u l a r
9. What was the name for supporters of the arts? P a t r o n s
10. The addition of dimensions (3) in paintings was known as? P e r s p e c t i v e
11. What is the term for someones native language? V e r n a c u l a r
12. Who wrote The Prince which was more concerned with what was politically effective rather than what was morally right? N i c c o l o M a c h i a v e l l i
13. Which other books played a significant role in the Renaissance? The Divine Comedy Daunte The Canterburry Tales Geoffery Chauncer These books were written in vernacular language which helped in spreading knowledge throughout Europe and aided in developing modern language.
14. Which family played a major role in the Italian Renaissance? Medicis They took control of one of the Italian city-states and were consistent patrons of the arts.
15. What Renaissance artist painted the Sistine Chapel? M i c h e l a n g e l o
16. What famous artist painted the School of Athens for the Pope? Raphael
17. What artist painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper? L e o n a r d o d a V i n c i
18. Christian Humanist Thomas Moore wrote a book called? U t o p i a
19. What English writer wrote classics such as Hamlet and Macbeth? W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e
20. What is the name of the machine that presses paper against a tray of inked moveable type? P r i n t i n g P r e s s
21. What was the first full-size book to be printed with moveable type? T h e G u t e n b e r g B i b l e
22. Womens education in the Renaissance revolved around which concepts? Religion Morality The desire was to produce good wives and mothers, little emphasis was put genuine education.
23. The Reformation
24. What was the Reformation? The Reformation was a movement for religious reform.
25. What were some of the causes of the Reformation? Renaissance emphasis on secular. Printing press helped to spread secular ideas. Rulers resented Popes attempt to demonstrate power. Resentment of paying church taxes. Corruption in Catholic church Spending on the arts Lot living by church standards Gambling Drinking Marrying Poor education
26. Name the main character in the story of the European Reformation. Martin Luther
27. What was Luthers primary religious teaching? Justification by Faith
28. Luther first rebelled against a friar who was selling pardons called? Indulgences
29. What document did Luther compose that formally listed his complaints against the church? The 95 Theses Salvation by Faith vs. by good works Authority in Bible vs. authority in Pope Believers were equal vs. need for leaders to interpret Biblical meanings.
30. Luthers followers eventually became known as? Lutherans
31. Princes who supported Luther, who signed a protest, were known as? Protestants
32. Charles (HRE) called for peace, and ordered that the religion of each German state would be determined by its rulerwhat was it called? Peace of Augsburg.
33. King Henry of England challenged the churches authority by asking the Pope to do what? Annul (set aside) his marriage. This event lead to the creation of a church and increased conflict between Catholics and Protestants. This revolution was rooted in political power and change, not religion
34. Henrys daughter Elizabeth was eventually name the head of the Church of England also known as? The Anglican Church
35. What religious leader took over the Reformation after Luther? John Calvin
36. Calvins book Institutes of the Christian Religion talked about the elect, & how they had been chosen by God, an idea called? Predestination
37. Eventually Calvins teachings became known as? Calvinism
38. Name the system in which the government is controlled by religious leaders. Theocracy
39. Followers of Knox became known as? Presbyterians
40. One of the Protestant divisions taught that only people old enough should be baptized known as? Anabaptists (baptize again)
41. Those who stayed loyal to the Catholic religion experienced their own reform known as? The Catholic Reformation
42. Ignatius eventually created a religious order called the Society of Jesusfollowers were known as? Jesuits
43. From 1545 to 1563 Catholic bishops and cardinals agreed on doctrines at an event known as? The Council of Trent They decided Churchs interpretation of the Bible was final. Bible and church authority were both legitimate authorities for guiding Christian life. Indulgences were valid expressions of faith.
44. What were the lasting effects of the Reformation? Protestant churches flourish (set foundation for modern day Christianity). Religion no longer united Europe (led the way to modern nation states). Reformers successful revolt set the stage for later rebellions (especially in Western culture).