Quick notes on Constantine's reign and Christianity
Take brief notes on Roman Emperor Constantine, who converted to Christianity and issued the Edict of Milan, promoting religious tolerance. He also moved the capital to Constantinople, but as Christianity spread, differences arose amongst church leaders.
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Slide2-Take some quick notes, but don’t write every last word - Every few slides we will recap the main points to make sure everyone has the important facts
Slide3-The Roman Emperor Constantine (306- 337 AD) was the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity. He issued the Edict of Milan in 313 which created religious tolerance - He also moved the Capital of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople in the Byzantine Empire - As Christianity spread in Europe and Asia Minor, differences began to emerge between Church leaders throughout the Empire
Slide4-As Christianity grew, Church leaders began to wonder who was the One True Leader of the Christian Faith - The Roman Patriarch (Pope) had declared himself Head over the whole Church. This caused tensions - The “final straw” was over the filioque clause which the Pope added to the Nicene Creed… which added “and the Son” to the phrase “And we believe in the Holy Spirt, the Lord and giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father” - The Eastern Leaders believed the Power of the Holy Spirit came ONLY from God the Father
Slide5-In 1054 AD, the Pope of Rome and the Patriarch in Constantinople excommunicated each other and expelled all of the others senior church officials - This split created two new churches: The Eastern Orthodox, centered in Constantinople and the Western Church, centered on the Pope in Rome
Slide6-Eastern Orthodox rejects the authority of the Pope - They reject any modifications made to the Christian Faith after 787 AD - This church dominates in Greece, Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania - Focus on saints and rituals in the early Christian Church - Led by the Patriarch in Istanbul
Slide7- Through the Crusades the Roman Catholic Church united Europe under Catholicism and expanded their influence - The Council of Trent (1543 AD) occurred during the Catholic Reformation which affirmed all basic Catholic Teachings - At this Council ,they described three destinations for the soul- Heaven, Hell and Purgatory; Purgatory is a temporary state where the soul can be cleansed of sin and then enter heaven - It was also deemed that prayers to Mary and the saints are acceptable - Upheld the importance of both the Bible and Church Tradition - Over the centuries the Pope remains the Head of the Church with great power over Catholic Doctrine
Slide8-A Christian reform movement in Europe which is generally deemed to have begun with Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses - The movement began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church because many Catholics were troubled by what they saw as false doctrines (e.g., Mary, saints , many sacraments and sale of indulgences) - Another major issue was the practice of buying and selling church positions ( simony ) and what was seen at the time as considerable corruption within the Church's hierarchy
Slide9- Those that PROTESTED that the Bible was not followed closely enough were called PROTESTANTS - Protestantism is known for its belief that the Bible, not church tradition or ecclesiastical interpretations of the Bible, is the final source of authority for all believers - Protestants also believe that salvation is by grace through faith, not grace and works - “By grace alone through faith alone, because of Christ alone” – Martin Luther
Slide10-The creation of the Anglican Church was a somewhat political move by King Henry VIII - Henry wanted his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled and voided, however the Catholic Church & Pope would not allow it - After this Henry created the Act of Supremacy, which made the British Monarch, the Head of the Church - Then he had an Archbishop annul his marriage without papal approval - Because of this the Roman Catholic Church excommunicated Henry
Slide11-Anglicans celebrate the traditional sacraments, with special emphasis on the Holy Eucharist, or Holy Communion - Anglicans do not recognize the authority of the Pope - They also so not believe in the doctrine of transubstantiation - Anglicans tend to view themselves as a bridge between Protestants and Roman Catholics
Slide12- Baptists have the belief that the Bible, not church tradition or ecclesiastical interpretations of the Bible, is the final source of authority for all believers - Baptists also believe that salvation is by grace through faith, not grace and works - Believe that becoming a Christian should be a mature and informed decision and not a birthright - Believe heavily in Baptism (immersion), similar to the way of John the Baptist baptised people - Celebrate communion, but do not believe in transubstantiation
Slide13-The Presbyterian church began with John Calvin in Scotland - He emphasized the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Bible, and the necessity of grace through faith, focused on the control God exercises over the world - God appointed the eternal destiny of some to salvation by grace, while leaving the remainder to receive eternal damnation for all their sins: Predestination - Today there are a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterian.