Adolescence - The Transition from Puberty to Adulthood
Adolescence is the period in a person's life that spans from the onset of puberty to the beginning of adulthood. In pre-industrial societies, individuals would pass through
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Slide1Adolescence • Period between normal onset of puberty to the beginning of adulthood. - *In pre-industrial societies, people passed this stage in life after performing necessary puberty rites. *In U.S. adolescence didn’t exist before the Civil War! Anticipatory socialization - adolescent preparing to take on new adult roles ((
Slide2Puberty- physical maturing that makes an individual capable of sexual reproduction. Puberty rites (men & women) • differ from society to society • average age is 13yrs. old Examples: Demonstrations of strength and endurance (simulation) Ritual filing of the teeth ( volunteer) • Tattooing or scarring of the body ( powerpoint )
Slide3There are 3 factors that makeadolescence a life stage: 1. Education- students living at home while in college 2. Exclusion of youth in the workforce- child labor laws 3. Development of the juvenile justice system- different sentencing guidelines based on age Ex. Lee Boyd Malvo- 16 yr. old sniper
Slide44 Characteristics of Adolescence1. Biological Growth & Development 2. Undefined Status 3. Increased Decision Making 4. Increased Pressure
Slide5Biological Growth & Development• Puberty is universal • Endocrine system - hormone-producing glands • Spurts in height & weight in short amount of time • Pimples! 80% of adolescents have acne- results in anxiety/embarrassment
Slide6Undefined status- some adults treat teenagers like adults, some treat them like children • Marriage at 14-18 w/o parental consent in U.S. • Voting age- 18 • Drinking age- 21 • Driver’s License- 16-18 • Service in Armed Forces- 18
Slide7Increased Decision Making• What courses should I take in school? • What sports should I play? • What car/job should I have? • College, tech school, take a year off, work for the family? • Choosing a mate & career- MAJOR decision!
Slide8Increased Pressure• Relationships with family and friends • Job- finding one, keeping one, juggling school work/grades, scheduling free time • Teenagers want to fit in: Parental curfews true friends or not? Advertisements to lure teens into brand name clothes, certain music, movies, etc.
Slide16Teenagers and Dating• Dating is NOT universal! • Dating didn’t exist before WWI- it was called courting. Courting • Very few dates with the person you chose to marry! • If left alone in a room, one foot had to be on the floor& the door always open.
Slide17 4 forms of dating1. Recreation 2. Socialization 3. Attain status 4. Fulfill psychological needs List at least 20 recreational activities to do on a date! Keep it clean!
Slide18Dating PatternsTraditional (up to 1960) • Male to female contact • Visible sign of commitment • Certain times of the week to make plans for the weekend Contemporary • Both contact each other • Group friendship at first • Parents don’t have as much control
Slide20for many of the old order amish young people, pairingup begins at Sunday evening singings. The boy will take the girl home in his buggy. The couple is secretive about their courtship. Several days to two weeks before the wedding, the couple is published in church and their intentions to marry are made known. Weddings are in November, or at the very latest in early December. That's after the busy fall harvesting season is over. Weddings are on Tuesdays or Thursdays-the least busy days of the week on an Amish farm. The wedding is held at the home of the bride and the sermon and ceremony will last about four hours. Weddings usually begin at 8:30 a.m. There are no kisses, rings, photography, flowers or caterers. There are usually 200 or more guests. After the wedding there is a dinner of chicken, filling, mashed potatoes, gravy, ham, canned fruit, plus many cookies, cakes and pies.
Slide21Was used to set the time agentleman caller could spend courting a young girl. The girl's father would light and raise or lower the candle the height he felt appropriate as the courter arrived. If the father thought the young man was a good prospect for his daughter, the candle was set high. On the other hand, if he disapproved, he made sure the candle was set very low. Everyone knew that when the candle burned down to the top of the candleholder, it was time to say goodnight.
Slide22Amish Case Study (2001)Community records: Out of 200 Amish members, there hasn’t been one divorce! Question: Maybe our societal views on dating should change to lower our devastating divorce rate- which is 1.5 out of 2 marriages in 2005 ended!
Slide23 Stages of dating 1. Casual (recreation/amusement) 2. Steady (no interest in anyone else) 3. Engagement (ring and a date) 4. Marriage Sequence of dating • Degree of commitment increases w/ each stage (boyfriend/girlfriend) • Stages may be skipped (love at first site?) • Can be stopped at any time (runaway bride)
Slide24How did the Industrial Revolution changecourting in the U.S.? 1. Cars- easier to communicate (neighbors) 2. Males no longer on farms- become independent, workplace acquaintances 3. Creation of co-ed public school system 4. Establishment of child labor laws allows for more “free time” 5. Women in the workforce in the 1920’s!
Slide26Willard Waller- (Penn State) sociologist that studied dating people. He made a bold conclusion that dating had little to do with mate selection and more to do with having fun! • Mother/Father of my children • Inheritance is sizable • Popularity & good looks • False sense of tremendous wealth • Education THEN TODAY
Slide27Homogomy- individuals marry people who have social characteristics similar to their own ANSWER: Cinderella is a fairy tale!
Slide281.Pregnancy & AIDS 2. Drugs 3. Suicide TEE
Slide29Early sexual activity =Negative Health Consequences Do you know what the 6 th leading cause of death is among adolescents? Here are two of the many you need to remember! #1
Slide30sociologists attribute this horrifying statistic tothree causes: Do you have any guesses? 1. Unprotected sex 2. Drug use 3. Rape Comprehensive AIDS website
Slide31Aids Memorial Quilt
Slide32HerpesGonorrhea Genital Warts Crabs Syphilis
Slide33The U.S. teenage pregnancy rate is5x that of Germany, Japan, or France.
Slide34Background to the social problem: • In the 1960’s, the Sexual Revolution happened and the Birth Control Pill was developed. • Love-Inns & Swinging parties were common. STAT: In 2005- 99% of TV programs had sexual material in the script TV Censorship timeline
Slide35Reasons for early sexual activity: • Socio and economical factors 2 parents & high income- lowest rate Single parent & low income- highest rate • Religious participation • Drug use & peer pressure
Slide36Consequences of early sexual activity: • Teenage mothers become drop-outs • Teenage mothers have lower paying jobs • Children of teenagers have more learning difficulties • Children of teenagers have a higher rate of becoming teenage parents themselves STAT: Over 10% of mothers are teenagers!
Slide38Cocaine and Heroin ads
Slide39Harrison Narcotic Act (1914)- outlawed heroin and cocaine for recreational or medicinal purposes • Extreme mood swings • Increase in criminal activities • Crack cocaine is #1 drug in gang violence • Marijuana - leading drug in high schools • Cigarettes- 20% of teenagers are addicted to nicotine by the age of 17 • Alcohol abuse by teens has decreased slightly in the past decade
Slide40WHY do teens use drugs? #1 reason…
Slide412. Social and academic problems3. Living in a hostile or rejecting family setting Department of Health & Human Services
Slide44Best resource for suicide information:Center for Disease and Control Predictors: • Alcohol and/or drug use - Why? 1. Low level of self-control 2. Use it as a method to commit suicide 3. Easily frustrated & more likely to act on impulse Disclaimer: Suicides stats. are often wrong. Many are reported as accidents (single-car/no brake marks) or drug overdoses.
Slide45More predictors cont.-• Triggering Events - unwanted pregnancy, poor grades, family crisis, loss/rejection of an important person • Age - 3 rd leading cause of death among people aged 15-24 (1. Accidents 2. Homicides) • Gender - Females are 3x more likely to attempt suicide but fail (pills/superficial cuts) Males more likely to succeed b/c they use weapons
Slide46Suicide predictors cont.-• Family Relations - violence in the home, intense marital conflicts, recent loss of parent due to divorce or death. *Suicide is more common in families whose parent/s show rejection or hostility towards their children.* • Population Density - under populated areas have a higher suicide rate b/c there are fewer social services and more social isolation Geographically, fewer suicides happen where? East coast, West coast or Midwest? Western
Slide47• Cluster Effect - one suicide often leads to a COPYCAT suicide within a community. The news acts like a fuse with already unstable teens. Social Factors that affect suicide rates: Emile Durkheim (1897)- famous for the most comprehensive case study of suicide to date! He wanted to know why some groups within a society have higher suicide rates then others. He concluded this: It depends on the their level of social integration.
Slide48Social Integration- the degree of attachment one has to a social group or society. • Opposite ends of the spectrum; if you place your groups’ needs above your own because you are very socially integrated- you have an increased risk. Eskimos in Greenland In many societies, primarily nomadic or very poor ones, it is not uncommon that old members of the tribe will commit suicide to avoid continuing life as weak and pitiable creatures that are a burden on their community. Among the Eskimos, such motives appeared to be quite frequent, and a person might be placed in a kayak on the ocean to sail toward the sunrise, or be left behind in the wilderness. Last recorded case- 1939.
Slide49 InuitEskimos Iluilissat Ice fjord
Slide50•People w/ low levels of social integration have the highest rate of suicide. What groups are you involved in? • Rates also increase during periods of social disorganization Examples: natural disasters, war, sudden change in economic conditions