Nationalism and Political Identities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America: India's Quest for Home Rule

Nationalism and Political Identities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America: India's Quest for Home Rule

This chapter discusses the history of India's struggle for self-rule through the Indian National Congress, founded in 1885.

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Slide1Chapter 35Nationalism and Political Identities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America 1 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide2India’s Quest for Home Rule Indian National Congress founded 1885, to promote self-rule  Initial support from both Hindus and Muslims  Original position in favor of collaboration with British, after World War I moved to opposition  British encouraged development of Muslim League (1906) to blunt Congress  Woodrow Wilson, Lenin inspirations to movement ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2

Slide3Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948) Hindu, studied law in London, practiced in South Africa  Opposed apartheid  Returned to India 1915, made Indian National Congress into a mass movement  Titled  Mahatma : “great soul”  Opposed caste system 3 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide4Gandhi4 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide5Gandhi’s Passive Resistance Ahimsa:  nonviolence  Satyagraha:  passive resistance (“truth and firmness”)  Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922)  Civil Disobedience Movement (1930)  Boycott of British institutions  Amritsar Massacre (1919) 5 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide6The Government of India Act (1937) Creation of autonomous legislature  600 nominally sovereign princes refuse to cooperate  Muslim fears of Hindu dominance  Traditional economic divide  Especially severe with Great Depression  Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) proposes partition, creation of the state of Pakistan 6 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide7The Republic of China Revolution in 1911 forces Emperor Puyi to abdicate  Sun Yatsen (1866-1925) proclaims Republic of China in 1912  Political anarchy follows  Independent warlords exercise local control 7 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide8Chinese Nationalism May Fourth Movement  Students, urban intellectuals protest foreign interference  Especially Japanese interference  Marxism increases in popularity  Chinese Communist Party founded in Shanghai (1921)  Leader: Mao Zedong (1893-1976) 8 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide9Sun Yatsen (1866-1925) Created Nationalist People’s Party ( Guomindang )  Accepts support from Soviet Union  Members of the Chinese Communist Party also join Guomindang 9 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide10Civil War Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek, 1887-1975) takes over after death of Sun Yatsen  Launches military expedition to unify China, turns against communist allies  Communists flee 6,215 miles to northwest China, 1934: the Long March  Mao Zedong leads, elucidates Chinese communism (Maoism) 10 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide11The Struggle for Control in China,1927-1936 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11

Slide12Imperialist Japan Japan signs treaties under League of Nations to limit imperialist activity, 1922-1928  Political chaos in interwar Japan, assassinations  Militarist, imperialist circles advocate greater assertion of Japanese power in the region  China a soft target ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12

Slide13The Mukden Incident (1931) Japanese troops in Manchuria, China, secretly blow up small parts of the Japanese-built South Manchuria Railway as pretext for war  Over opposition of Japanese civilian government, military takes Manchuria, renames it Manchukuo, a puppet state  League of Nations censures Japan; Japan leaves the League of Nations 13 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide14Africa and the Great War African colonies participate in World War I  Allies invade German-controlled colonies  Africans encouraged to fight white soldiers  Many Europeans left to be deployed elsewhere  Encouraged local rebellions and challenges to European domination 14 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide15Africa’s New Elite Postwar class of elite  Often influenced by education, other experiences abroad  Jomo Kenyatta (1895-1978), Kenyan nationalist  Moved to create modern nation-states in Africa  Pan-Africanism promoted by Marcus Garvey (Jamaica, 1887-1940)  “Back to Africa” 15 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide16Latin American Developments Reaction against U.S. influence; protests by university students  Explore alternate political ideologies, especially Marxism  Fidel Castro (Cuba, 1926- )  José Carlos Mariátegui (Peru, 1895-1930)  Artist Diego Rivera (Mexico, 1886-1957) 16 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide17Fidel Castro (1926- )17 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide18United States Economic Domination Great War ensures U.S. domination  Huge capital investment in Latin America; export of raw materials  U.S. economic neocolonialism under President William Howard Taft (1857-1931)  “Dollar diplomacy”  “Yankee imperialism” 18 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide19The United States in Latin America,1895-1941 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19

Slide20The “Good Neighbor Policy” Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945)  Avoids direct intervention by supporting local leaders  U.S. Marines train local militias ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20

Slide21FDR21 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide22Nicaraguan Developments Civil war in Nicaragua, 1920s  U.S. supports Anastacio Somoza Garcia (1896- 1956)  Augusto César Sandino leads opposition to U.S. influence  Somoza assassinates Sandino in 1934  Maintains good relations with U.S. 22 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Slide23Mexican Developments Roosevelt formally renounces intervention as per Monroe Doctrine, 1933  Lázaro Cárdenas (1895-1970) nationalizes Mexican oil industry in 1938  Previously controlled by U.S., British interests  Roosevelt convinces U.S., British businesses to accept $24 million in compensation ($260 sought)  U.S. wants to retain support of Mexico with approaching war  Also, increasing dependence on Mexican immigrant labor ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23


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