Understanding Ecology: Levels of Organization and Biosphere

Understanding Ecology: Levels of Organization and Biosphere

Ecology is the scientific study of how living organisms interact with each other and with their environment. This field of study helps us understand the intricate relationships that exist in nature and how they impact

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About Understanding Ecology: Levels of Organization and Biosphere

PowerPoint presentation about 'Understanding Ecology: Levels of Organization and Biosphere'. This presentation describes the topic on Ecology is the scientific study of how living organisms interact with each other and with their environment. This field of study helps us understand the intricate relationships that exist in nature and how they impact. The key topics included in this slideshow are . Download this presentation absolutely free.

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Slide2Ecology is the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their physical environment (soil, water, climate…) • ECO = • LOGY = What  is  ecology? What  is  ecology? house the study of

Slide3LEVELS OF  ORGANIZATION LEVELS  OF  ORGANIZATION Species Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere

Slide4BiosphereBiosphere • The biosphere contains the combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists, including land, water and atmosphere.

Slide6ENERGY FLOW ENERGY  FLOW • Every organism needs… …ENERGY!!!

Slide7ENERGY FLOW ENERGY  FLOW • What are autotrophs? • Organisms that capture energy from the sun or chemicals to produce their own food.

Slide8ENERGY FLOW ENERGY  FLOW • What is a producer? • Organisms that first capture energy (Autotrophs) • FIRST TROPHIC LEVEL

Slide9ENERGY FLOW ENERGY  FLOW • During photosynthesis, autotrophs use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert CO 2  and water into oxygen and high energy sugars (glucose).

Slide10PRODUCERSPRODUCERS LAND: Plants UPPER LAYERS OF OCEAN: Algae TIDAL FLATS/SALT MARSHES: Photosynthetic bacteria / cyanobacteria

Slide11CHEMOSYNTHESIS CHEMO SYNTHESIS • Chemosynthesis is the process by which organisms use CHEMICAL energy to PRODUCE carbohydrates. • Making food without sunlight! – Example: Bacteria

Slide12ENERGY FLOW ENERGY  FLOW • If AUTOTROPHS are called PRODUCERS, because they make their own food, what are HETEROTROPHS called?

Slide13CONSUMERSCONSUMERS • Organisms that consume plants or other organisms to obtain energy. • All organisms that are NOT producers!!!  (Heterotrophs) • Three categories – Primary – Secondary – Tertiary

Slide14PRIMARY CONSUMERS PRIMARY  CONSUMERS • Herbivores – Eat plants or other primary producers • Examples – Cows – Horses – Rabbits – Some Insects • SECOND TROPHIC LEVEL

Slide15SECONDARY CONSUMERS SECONDARY  CONSUMERS • Carnivores – Animals that eat animals – Examples:  tigers, wolves, snakes • Omnivores – Animals that are herbivores and carnivores – Examples:  bears, humans • THIRD TROPHIC LEVEL

Slide16TERTIARY CONSUMERS TERTIARY  CONSUMERS • Carnivores that consume other carnivores • Known as “top carnivores” • Example: – A hawk that eats a snake – A lion that eats a hyena • FOURTH TROPHIC LEVEL

Slide17DETRITOVORESDETRITOVORES • Decomposes organic material and returns the nutrients to the soil, water and air (making it available for other organisms). • Examples:  mites, earthworms, snails, crabs

Slide18DECOMPOSERSDECOMPOSERS • Break down and absorb nutrients from dead organisms • They cause decay • Decomposition of bodies and wastes releases nutrients back into the environment to be recycled by other organisms. • Examples:  bacteria, fungi

Slide19SCAVENGERSSCAVENGERS • Do not kill their food—they search for a source of food that is already dead • “Clean-up” the ecosystem • Examples:  buzzards

Slide20FEEDING RELATIONSHIPS FEEDING  RELATIONSHIPS • Energy flows through an ecosystem in ONE direction: Sun (or inorganic chemicals) Autotrophs/Producers Heterotrophs/Consumers

Slide21FOOD CHAIN FOOD  CHAIN • A  food chain  is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten. • It is how energy moves through an ecosystem!

Slide22FOOD WEB FOOD  WEB • A  food web  is a network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem.

Slide23FOOD CHAIN  vs.  FOOD  WEB FOOD  CHAIN  vs.  FOOD  WEB • A food web will link together all of the food chains in a particular ecosystem…

Slide24Aterrestrial food chain A marine food chain

Slide27TROPHIC LEVELS TROPHIC  LEVELS • A trophic level is a step in a food chain or food web. • Different organisms are on different levels depending on their source of energy. • Where does energy come from? SUN

Slide28TROPHIC LEVELS TROPHIC  LEVELS 1 st  TROPHIC LEVEL Producers 2 nd  TROPHIC LEVEL Primary Consumers 3 rd  TROPHIC LEVEL Secondary Consumers 4 th  TROPHIC LEVEL Tertiary Consumers

Slide29TROPHIC LEVELS TROPHIC  LEVELS • A consumer in a food chain depends on the trophic level below it for energy.

Slide31ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS ECOLOGICAL  PYRAMIDS • An ecological pyramid is a diagram that show the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level of a food chain or food web.

Slide32ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS ECOLOGICAL  PYRAMIDS • Only part of the energy stored in a trophic level is passed on to the next because organisms use much of the energy they con

Slide33ENERGY PYRAMID ENERGY  PYRAMID • All energy originates from the sun (or inorganic chemicals). • Sunlight (radiant energy) is converted to digestible energy by plants during photosynthesis.

Slide34When the plants are eaten, the energy is transferred to animals to sustain life. • Energy is transferred up the food chain. ENERGY  PYRAMID ENERGY  PYRAMID

Slide36THE RULE  OF  TENS THE  RULE  OF  TENS • Only 10% of the energy in a trophic level is passed on to the next level…90% of the energy is lost—where does it go? • Given off as HEAT!!

Slide38BIOMASS PYRAMID BIOMASS  PYRAMID • Biomass is the total amount of living tissue within a trophic level. • Represents the amount of potential food available at each trophic level.

Slide39PYRAMID OF  NUMBERS PYRAMID  OF  NUMBERS • Shows relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.

Slide43LIMITATIONS OF TROPHIC  LEVELS LIMITATIONS  OF TROPHIC  LEVELS Why can there not be too many links to one food chain?

Slide44Each trophic level can support about one-tenth the amount of living tissue as the level below it, because only 10% of the energy is passed up!!!

Slide45few  more  things… A  few  more  things…

Slide46HABITATHABITAT • The area where an organism lives • Includes both  biotic and  abiotic  factors

Slide47Biotic vs.  Abiotic Biotic  vs.  Abiotic Biotic • Bio- means: life • Tic- means: pertaining to Biotic factors are the living organisms in a habitat! Abiotic • • Bio- means: life • • Tic- means: pertaining to • • A- means: no, not Abiotic factors are all the physical aspect of a habitat! Examples:  soil, water, weather

Slide48Abiotic Factors Abiotic  Factors • Water • Air • • Soil • • Heat • • Light