The Origins of the UN and Collective Security

The Origins of the UN and Collective Security

The establishment of the United Nations (UN) in 1945 marked a significant turning point in international relations. However, the roots of this organization can be traced back to World War I

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Slide2Origins of the UN Go back to WWI and the League of Nations  President Wilson’s idea of “collective security”  “ Collective security  is one type of coalition building strategy in which a  group of nations agree not to attack each other and to defend each other against an attack from one of the others , if such an attack is made.  The principal is that "an attack against one, is an attack against all” (Dictionary of International Relations).  The  League of Nations ,  was an organization conceived during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles "to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security" ( History of UN).

Slide3Why the League of Nations Failed Did not have a military force of its own-members had to contribute  Members not willing to impose economic or military sanctions  Several big powers were not members- US, USSR, Germany, Japan  Britain and France were reluctant to carry the burden- they just emerged from WWI

Slide4Origins Continued Delegates from China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States deliberated at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944.   In April- June 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco to draw up the  United Nations Charter   ( History of the United Nations ).

Slide5UN Goals Founded on the concept of  internationalism -which establishes the cooperation of nations to promote common aims  Maintain international peace  Promote justice and cooperation  Goals are listed in the  UN Charter  or constitution

Slide6UN Structure The General Assembly:  Main body of debate  Consists of 193 member states  Each state has one vote  Majority of work is done in committees but Assembly votes to approve or reject committee suggestions  No power to enforce decisions

Slide7Security Council Charged with promoting peace and security  5 Permanent members: France, US, Russia, Britain and China (winners in WWII)  Have veto power  10 other member states join on a rotating basis

Slide8Economic and Social Council Spearheads the UN's economic, social, humanitarian and cultural activities.  Works with various commissions that deal with human rights, population growth, technology and drugs  Has 54 members who are elected by the General Assembly

Slide9International Court of Justice The court is the main judicial body of the UN and is tasked with settling legal disputes submitted to it by states  Located in the Hague- only part of the UN where the primary location is NOT NYC  Comprised of 15 justices elected for 9 year terms by the General Assembly and the Security Council

Slide10Secretariat Secretariat does the day-to-day work of the UN  Administers the programs and policies of the organization  Research, translation and media relations  Employs almost 9,000 peeps from 170 countries

Slide11Trusteeship Council Administered the UN's trust territories. It suspended its activities in 1994 when the last of the trust territories, Palau in the south Pacific, became independent.  The council, made up of the five permanent Security Council members, agreed in 1994 to meet "as occasion required".

Slide12The Expanded UN System Independent agencies and the UN’s own programs extend the organizations reach  The independent agencies include   World Bank  International Monetary Fund and t  World Health Organization.  They are linked to the UN by cooperation agreements.

Slide13UN AgenciesThe UN's own major agencies and programs include:      International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)  - UN's nuclear watchdog; based in Vienna.    International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)  - try those suspected of war crimes in the former Yugoslavia; based in The Hague.  UN Children's Fund (UNICEF)  - promotes child health, education, protection.  UN Development Programme (UNDP)  - committed to reducing poverty, developing infrastructure, promoting democratic governance.   

Slide14UN Agencies continued… UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - aims to promote peace and development through education, science, culture and communication; based in Paris.  UN Environment Programme (UNEP)  - promotes environmental protection; based in Nairobi.    UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)  - safeguards rights and well-being of refugees; based in Geneva.    UN Works and Relief Agency (UNWRA)  - dedicated agency providing assistance solely to Palestinian refugees and their descendants.  World Food Programme  - "frontline agency in the fight against hunger"; based in Rome.

Slide15Works Cited “Background on the United Nations.”  World Affairs Council Connecticut . n.d. 2013 .  Web. 22 Feb 2014.  “ The United Nations an Introduction for Students .” United Nations Cyberschoolbus.  2014. Web. 2 Mar 2014.  Remy, Richard, John Patrick, David Saffel and Gary Clayton.  Civics Today.  Columbus: McGraw Hill, 2010. Print.