Globalization and the Geography of Networks: Exploring the Goals of Globalization through the World Economic Forum and World Social Forum
In Chapter 14, the concept of globalization is analyzed in relation to the role of networks. The chapter
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Slide1Globalization and theGeography of Networks Chapter 14
Slide2What is Globalization, andWhat Role do Networks Play in Globalization? Key Question:
Slide3What are the Goals of Globalization?Depends on who you ask: World Economic Forum – an annual meeting held in Davos, Switzerland. Participants typically: - champion free trade - represent large corporations
Slide4World Social ForumGoal of the World Social Forum: Find alternatives to the decisions being made at the World Economic Forum. Participants are a network of anti- globalizationists.
Slide5What is Globalization?A set of processes that are: - increasing interactions - deepening relationships - heightening interdependence without regard to country borders. A set of outcomes that are: - unevenly distributed - varying across scales - differently manifested throughout the world.
Slide6GlobalizationGeographer Andrew Kirby explains that with globalization, we are living “not so much in a world without boundaries, or in a world without geography – but more literally, in a world, as opposed to a neighborhood or a region.”
Slide7Networks• Manuel Castells defines networks as “a set of interconnected notes” without a center. – Time-Space Compression – Global Cities
Slide8World Cities most Connectedto New York City This map shows the 30 world cities that are the most connected to New York City, as measured by flows in the service economy.
Slide9Castells claims that the age of informationtechnology is more revolutionary than either the advent of the printing press or the Industrial Revolution. Determine whether you agree with him, and write an argument in support of your position (use specific examples to support your conclusions).
Slide10At What Scales doNetworks Operate in the Globalized World? Key Question:
Slide11Networks in Development• Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) have created a web of global development networks. – Participatory Development – idea that locals should be engaged in deciding what development means for them and how to achieve it. • Gets back to “What is development and how do we measure it?”
Slide12Networks in DevelopmentLocal Currencies A network of people exchanging services and products through a currency that holds meaning and value only to those participating in the network. In Argentina (right), 5,000 different local currencies and barter clubs exist.
Slide13Networks in Media• Vertical integration – a corporation that has ownership in a variety of points along the production and consumption of a commodity chain. – eg. Media Companies Goal is synergy, the cross promotion of vertically integrated goods.
Slide15Networks in MediaGatekeepers: People or corporations who control access to information. How does vertical integration of Media affect the number of gatekeepers? How do weblogs affect the number of gatekeepers?
Slide16Networks of Retail Corporations• Horizontal integration – ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist at the same point on a commodity chain. – eg. The Gap (Banana Republic, Old Navy) Global retail corporations have more connections to the local around the world than global manufacturing corporations. Retail stores create a local presence.
Slide17Think of a place you have been where the globalmedia have worked to create a synergy. Describe the presence of the global media entity in the place and show how the global media have imprinted the cultural landscape of the place and how that imprint affected your experience in (and your sense of) the place.
Slide18How have Identities Changed inthe Globalized World? Key Question:
Slide19Identities in a Globalized World• Identity – how we make sense of ourselves – We have identities at different scales. – Globalized networks interlink us with flows of information and global interaction. – In a globalized world, a growing number of people are “making sense of themselves” within the context of the globe.
Slide20Personal Connectedness• When a tragedy occurs somewhere in the world, people have the desire to: – personalize it. – localize it. In the process of personalizing and localizing a tragedy, a new global awareness can be created.
Slide21Personal Connectedness• When a death or tragedy happens, how do people choose a local space in which to express a personal and/or global sorrow? – Short term = spontaneous shrines – Longer term = permanent memorials
Slide22“By allowing individuals to shareloss, tragedy, and sorrow with others, these places can sometimes allow people to build community and a sense of common purpose.” - Ken Foote
Slide23Landscapes ofViolence and Tragedy Geographer Ken Foote draws from extensive fieldwork to understand how Americans memorialize tragedy. Arlington National Cemetery (right) where thousands came to pay respects to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, who had recently died.
Slide24The Process of Memorializing PlaceWhether and how quickly a place is memorialized depends on: - funding - debate over what to build - who to remember - whether people want to remember the site
Slide25How does the personalization of tragedy, such asSeptember 11, the Indian Ocean tsunami, or Hurricane Katrina promote both globalization and localization at the same time?