Understanding Operant and Cognitive Approaches in Behavior Modification
This article explains Thorndike's Law of Effect and Skinner's Operant Conditioning, which emphasize the role of consequences in shaping behavior. By modifying behavior through positive or negative consequences, these approaches have proven effective in behavior modification.
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About Understanding Operant and Cognitive Approaches in Behavior Modification
PowerPoint presentation about 'Understanding Operant and Cognitive Approaches in Behavior Modification'. This presentation describes the topic on This article explains Thorndike's Law of Effect and Skinner's Operant Conditioning, which emphasize the role of consequences in shaping behavior. By modifying behavior through positive or negative consequences, these approaches have proven effective in behavior modification.. The key topics included in this slideshow are operant conditioning, behavior modification, Thorndike's Law of Effect, positive consequences, negative consequences,. Download this presentation absolutely free.
1. Module 10 Operant & Cognitive Approaches
2. Thorndikes Law of Effect Behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened
3. Skinners Operant Conditioning An operant response is a response that can be modified by its consequences and is a meaningful unit of ongoing behavior that can be easily measured Operant conditioning focuses on how consequences affect behavior Source: Based on Behavior of Organisms , by B. F. Skinner, 1938. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
6. Reinforcement & Punishment Reinforcement (Strengthens Behavior) A consequence that occurs after a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again Punishment (Weakens Behavior) A consequence that occurs after a behavior and decreases the chance that the behavior will occur again
7. Reinforcement & Punishment Reinforcement (Strengthens Behavior) A consequence that occurs after a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again Positive reinforcement presentation of a stimulus that increases the probability that the behavior will occur again Negative reinforcement an aversive stimulus whose removal increases the likelihood that the preceding response will occur again
8. Reinforcement & Punishment Punishment (Weakens Behavior) A consequence that occurs after a behavior and decreases the chance that the behavior will occur again Positive punishment Presenting an aversive stimulus after a response It decreases the chances that a response will recur Negative punishment Removing a reinforcing stimulus after a response It decreases the chances that a response will recur
9. Clarification of Terms Reinforcement vs. Punishment Reinforcement- Strengthens preceding behavior Punishment- Weakens preceding behavior Positive vs. Negative Positive- adding/ introducing a stimulus Negative- subtracting/ taking away a stimulus
10. Examples of Operant Conditioning: Toilet Training Target behavior Goal is for Sheryl to urinate in the toilet Preparation Give Sheryl a large glass of apple juice Reinforcers Each time Sheryl performs the desired behavior, she receives an immediate reinforcer Shaping Each time Sheryl performs a step that leads up to using the toilet, she receives reinforcement
15. Primary vs. Secondary Reinforcers Primary reinforcer Stimulus that is innately satisfying and requires no learning to become pleasurable Food, water, and sex Secondary reinforcer Stimulus that has acquired its reinforcing power through experience Coupons, money, and grades
16. Consequences Positive Reinforcement (pleasant stimulus applied) Increases the preceding behavior Negative Reinforcement (unpleasant stimulus removed or withheld) Increases the preceding behavior Positive Punishment (unpleasant stimulus applied) Decreases the preceding behavior Negative Punishment (pleasant stimulus removed or withheld) Decreases the preceding behavior
17. Positive Reinforcement Examples Action Consequence Increase in Behavior Dog looks for a bone at the neighbors house. Neighbor throws dog a bone. Dog will return to neighbors home in search of a bone.
18. Positive Reinforcement Examples Action Consequence Increase in Behavior A student studies for a test. The student earns and A+ on the test. The student will study again.
19. Positive Reinforcement Examples Action Consequence Increase in Behavior A student takes a psychology class. The student really enjoys and learns a lot from the psychology class ! The student will probably take another psychology class later!
20. Negative Reinforcement Examples Action Consequence Increase in Behavior The little boy whines when he is supposed to eat chopped liver. His parents take away the chopped liver. The little boy will whine to get his way again.
21. Negative Reinforcement Examples Action Consequence Increase in Behavior Sarah cries when the doctor tries to give her a shot. The doctor decided not to give her a shot. Sarah will probably cry to avoid unpleasant situations in the future.
22. Negative Reinforcement Examples Action Consequence Increase in Behavior Jennie is pulled over for speeding and cries. The police officer decides not to give Mrs. Gallagher a speeding ticket. Jennie will probably cry to avoid tickets in the future.
23. Negative Reinforcement Examples Taking an aspirin to relieve a headache. Hurrying home in the winter to get out of the cold. Giving in to an argument or to a dogs begging. Fanning oneself to escape the heat. Leaving a movie theater if the movie is bad. Smoking in order to relieve anxiety. Following prison rules in order to be released from confinement. Feigning a stomachache in order to avoid school. Putting on a car safety belt to stop an irritating buzz. Turning down the volume of a very loud radio. Putting up an umbrella to escape the rain. Saying uncle to stop being beaten.
24. Positive Punishment Examples Action Consequence Decrease in Behavior Joe misses 3 free throws in the basketball game. Joe must run three sprints after the game. Joe will be less likely to miss free throws in the next basketball game.
25. Positive Punishment Examples Action Consequence Decrease in Behavior Meggie touches electrical outlet. Meggie experiences mildly painful shock. Meggie wont touch the outlet again.
26. Positive Punishment Examples Action Consequence Decrease in Behavior Quinn touched a hot pan. Quinns finger is burnt. Quinn will not touch the hot pan again.
27. Negative Punishment Examples Action Consequence Decrease in Behavior Mr. Spooner speeds. Mr. Spooner has to pay for an expensive speeding ticket (money is taken away). Mr. Spooner will probably not speed in the near future!
28. Negative Punishment Examples Action Consequence Decrease in Behavior A child misbehaves in a restaurant. Her mother will not let her order dessert. The child will be less likely to misbehave in the future.
29. Negative Punishment Examples Action Consequence Decrease in Behavior Quinn pushes Meggie. Quinn has to sit in timeout. Quinn will be less likely to push Meggie again.
30. BE CAREFUL, OPERANT CONDITIONING VARIES WITH THE INDIVIDUAL
31. Action Consequences Behavior? Kaitlin talks during class. Teacher reprimands Kaitlin for talking. P0SITIVE REINFORCEMENT? Kaitlin really wants attention, she will be more like to talk in class again.
32. Action Consequences Behavior? Kaitlin talks during class. Teacher reprimands Kaitlin for talking. PUNISHMENT? Kaitlin wants the teachers approval, she will be less likely to talk in class again.
33. Action Consequences Behavior? Kaitlin talks during class. Kaitlin gets a detention. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT? Kaitlin really needs quiet time to do her homework after school.
34. Action Consequences Behavior? Kaitlin talks during class. Kaitlin gets a detention. PUNISHMENT? Kaitlin has a busy after school schedule and may be kicked off the team.
35. Classifying Consequences What type of operant conditioning is it?
36. Which consequence? Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Positive punishment Negative punishment
37. Positive Reinforcement A rat presses a bar and receives a food pellet. ADDING a pleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
38. Positive Punishment A child swears and is spanked. ADDING an unpleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
39. Negative Punishment A child has her bike taken away for crashing it. SUBTRACTING a pleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
40. Negative Punishment A teenager is put on restriction for keeping the car out too late. SUBTRACTING a pleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
41. Negative Reinforcement A child swims three more laps just so he can stop swimming which he hates. SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
42. Positive Reinforcement You study and earn an A. ADDING a pleasant consequences that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
43. Positive Punishment You party all night and get an F. ADDING an unpleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
44. Positive Punishment You are caught speeding and are given a ticket by the highway patrol. ADDING an unpleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
45. Negative Punishment A child is acting up in class and is sent to the corner of the room for 10 minutes. SUBTRACTING a pleasant consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of the behavior
46. Negative Reinforcement You clean up your room to avoid your moms nagging. SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
47. Negative Reinforcement Since you find that aspirin relieves your headaches, you find yourself taking it every time you feel a headache coming on. SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
48. Negative Reinforcement Whenever shock is applied to a rats feet, it presses a lever to stop it. SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
49. Negative Reinforcement A rat has learned to press a lever whenever a light comes on in order to prevent shock from ever being applied. SUBTRACTING an unpleasant consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
50. Positive Reinforcement Every time a child says the words mommy or daddy, both parents get very excited and pay extra attention to him. Soon the child is saying these words more and more. ADDING a pleasant consequences that INCREASES the likelihood of the behavior
51. Classical or Operant? Identification Activity
52. Decide CC or OC If the situation is an example of classical conditioning, label the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR. If the situation is an example of operant conditioning, decide which of the four consequences applies (positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, or negative punishment).
53. Scene One A very bright (mildly painful) light is turned on a rat. The rat has learned that he can turn off the light by pressing a lever on the other side of his cage. As soon as the light comes on, the rat runs across the room and presses the lever. Operant Conditioning Negative Reinforcement
54. Scene Two When a mother strokes her infants skin, the stroking creates pleasure responses in the baby. After this goes on for many days, that baby begins to show pleasure responses Classical Conditioning UCS- stroking UCR- pleasure CS- mother CR- pleasure
55. Scene Three A patient in a mental hospital is very disruptive at meal times. She grabs food from the plates of those sitting near her and tries to cram the food in her mouth. Because this behavior of stealing food is very undesirable, a plan is developed whereby every time the patient steals food from other plates, she is immediately taken to a room without food. Operant Conditioning Negative Punishment
56. Scene Four Johnny has gotten into a habit of yelling Bye, Mom and then slamming the door very loudly in his hurry to leave for school in the morning. The door slam causes his mother to flinch. After several days of the procedure, Johnnys mother begins to flinch at the sound of her sons words, Bye, Mom. Classical Conditioning UCS- door slam UCR- flinching CS- Bye, Mom CR- flinching
57. Scene Five Imagine you have a friend who keeps the temperature in her home so high that each occasion on which you visit her you find yourself perspiring. The last time you visited her, you noticed that you began to perspire and became uncomfortable as soon as you saw her house (before you even got inside). Classical Conditioning UCS- heat UCR- perspiration CS- sight of friends house CR- perspiration
58. Scene Six Fred leaves his clothes and toys all over his room. It seems that the only time he cleans up his room is when his mother yells at him. When she yells at him, Fred picks up his clothes and puts away his toys. Operant Conditioning Negative Reinforcement
59. Scene Seven Mr. & Mrs. Jones are having a heated argument that both are finding unpleasant. Mr. Jones gets up and leaves the room, closing the door behind him. This has the effect of terminating the argument. From then on, every time Mrs. Jones raises her voice, Mr. Jones leaves the room. Operant Conditioning Negative Reinforcement
60. Scene Eight A husband who usually ignores his wife still likes to think of himself as an understanding man. So, whenever his wife complains that her heart condition (which has no medical cause) is giving her pain, he becomes attentive and tries to comfort her. This responsiveness doesnt seem to help much: her reports of heart trouble just increase. Operant Conditioning Positive Reinforcement
61. Operant vs. Classical Conditioning Goal The goal of operant conditioning is to increase or decrease the rate of a response The goal of classical conditioning is to create a new response to a neutral stimulus Voluntary or involuntary response In operant conditioning, the individual must first perform a voluntary response before getting a reward In classical conditioning, physiological reflexes (involuntary responses) are triggered by a stimulus
62. Schedules of Reinforcement Schedule of Reinforcement A program or rule that determines how and when the occurrence of a response will be followed by a reinforcer Continuous reinforcement Every occurrence of the operant response is reinforced Partial reinforcement Responses are reinforced only some of the time
63. Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement given after a specific number of correct responses Required number of correct responses for reinforcement does not change Example: Every 4th correct response is rewarded
64. Fixed-Interval First correct response after a certain amount of time has passed is reinforced Required amount of time does not change
65. Variable-Ratio Reinforcement is given after a certain number of correct responses Required number of correct responses for reinforcement changes constantly Example: Slot machines in Las Vegas operate on a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement
66. Variable Interval First correct response after a set amount of time has passed is reinforced Required amount of time changes constantly
68. Schedules of Reinforcement Activity Identify the Schedule (X2)
69. Scene 1 Kimmy loves to go bowling and get strikes. She may roll the bowling ball three times to get a strike. Sometimes, she only needs to roll the bowling ball once to get a strike. Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Sporadic- Variable Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Number of response- Ratio VARIABLE RATIO
70. Scene 2 Jacob gets paid $10.00 for every hours he works. Jacob would like to make more, but no matter how productive he is, he only receives $10.00 per hour. Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Steadily- fixed Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Time- interval FIXED INTERVAL
71. Scene 3 Marissa gets praise from her parents every now and then. She never knows when she will get praised. She may have to wait two months, or only a week. Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Sporadic- Variable Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Time- interval VARIABLE INTERVAL
72. Scene 4 Ervin has figured out that every time he says, I love you, to his girlfriend, his girlfriend kisses him. This inspires Ervin to tell her that he loves her all the time. Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Steadily- fixed Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Number of responses- ratio FIXED RATIO
73. Scene 5 If Little Amber is good at the store, her dad might give her a lollipop. Sometimes she has to be good on two trips to the store, and sometimes only one trip to receive her lollipop. Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Sporadic- variable Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Number of responses- ratio VARIABLE RATIO
74. Scene 6 Paulie pledges to read two books every month. For each month he accomplishes his task, he receives points that he can redeem for prizes. Steady or sporadic reinforcement? Steadily- fixed Reinforced contingent on time or number of responses? Time- interval FIXED INTERVAL
75. Most Effective? Which type of schedule do you think is the most effective?
76. Operant Conditioning Concepts Generalization An animal or person emits the same response to similar stimuli Young child generalizes the word Daddy to all males Discrimination A response is emitted in the presence of a stimulus that is reinforced and not in the presence of unreinforced stimuli Parents reinforce the child saying Daddy in the presence of their real father, but do not reinforce the child when she calls strangers Daddy Extinction Reduction in an operant response when it is no longer followed by a reinforcer Spontaneous recovery Temporary recovery in the rate of responding
77. Power of Immediate Reinforcement Intrapersonal Activity 21 3
79. Cognitive Learning Cognitive learning involves mental processes such as attention & memory Cognitive map Mental representation in the brain of the layout of an environment and its features Social cognitive learning Results from watching, imitating, and modeling Does not require the observer to perform any observable behavior or receive any observable reward
80. Banduras Social Cognitive Theory 4 Processes Albert Bandura: Identified four required factors for observational learning Attention Observer must pay attention to what the model says or does Memory Observer must remember the information so that it can be retrieved and used later Imitation Observer must be able to use the remembered information to guide his/her own actions and imitate the models behavior Motivation Observer must have some reason or incentive to imitate the models behavior
81. Banduras Famous Bobo Doll Experiment Examined the influence of observational learning on aggressiveness in children All three groups viewed a film of an adult punching and verbally abusing a Bobo Doll Group One: Adult was rewarded Group Two: Adult was punished Group Three: No consequences for the adult After the film, the children played in a room with toys (including a Bobo doll Adult rewarded group was most aggressive This showed that operant conditioning can take place through observation alone!!! Applications?
82. Latent Learning Learning that is not revealed in performance immediately Revealed later when the behavior is reinforced Panic on test? Learning-performance distinction- learning may occur but may not always be measured by, or immediately evident in, performance
83. Tolman Rat Study Tolman Rat Study: To prove that learning can be latent (hidden), Tolman had three groups of rats run through mazes for 10 days Group One: Rewarded for running through maze to end Group Two: Un-rewarded Group Three: Un-rewarded for 10 days/rewarded on the 11th The rats in group one (rewarded) learned to run through the maze with few errors The rats in groups two and three (no reward) did not run through the maze with ease On day 11, Tolman began rewarding Group Two. Once rewarded, these rats instantly became as efficient as the group that had been rewarded all along!
84. Social Cognitive Learning: Decreases the Fear of Snakes Subjects with an intense fear of snakes were chosen for participation After watching a model handle a 4-foot snake, one group was invited to move closer to the snake Subjects were invited to touch the snake The group who watched the live model scored an average of 27 on the 29-step approach scale Source: Bar graph data from Relative Efficacy of Desensitization and Modeling Approaches for Inducing Behavior, Affective and Attitudinal Changes by A. Bandura, E. B. Blanchard & B. Ritter, 1969, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 13, 173-179.
85. Imprinting Inherited tendencies that are displayed in newborn animals when they encounter certain stimuli in their environment Chicks, goslings, and ducks follow the first moving object they see Sensitive/Critical period Relatively brief time during which learning is most likely to occur
86. Prepared Learning Innate tendency of animals to recognize, attend to, and store certain cues over others Nutcrackers have amazing memory to hide and find hundreds of hidden stores of food Humans are biologically prepared to make sounds
89. Teaching Challenge Teach Skill Through Modeling
90. Behavior Modification Treatment that changes problems or undesirable behaviors by using principles of learning based on operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and social cognitive learning Autism Marked by especially abnormal or impaired development in social interactions and communication abilities Signs usually appear when a child is 2 or 3 years old Dr. Lovaas training program uses behavior modification to teach autistic children language and social skills as well as self-help behaviors
91. Assignment Personal Change Project 21 12
92. Biofeedback Training procedure through which a person is made aware of his/her physiological responses such as muscle activity, heart rate, blood pressure, or temperature After becoming aware of these physiological responses, the person tries to control them to decrease psychosomatic problems Often used in conjunction with other types of medical treatment or psychotherapy
93. Class Challenge Conditioning the Instructor 21
94. Operant Conditioning Psych Sim 5.0
95. Maze Learning Psych Sim 4.0