Understanding Electrostatics and Charges
Explore the world of electrostatics, where electricity is at rest, and its fundamental rule- like charges repel and opposite charges attract. Learn about electric charges, their behavior in materials, and how an object becomes electrically charged.
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About Understanding Electrostatics and Charges
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2. What does that word even mean? Electrostatics = electricity at rest Electrostatics involves electric charges, the forces between them, and their behavior in materials Reminder: Protons (+) Electrons (-) Neutrons (no charge)
3. Charges The fundamental rule at the base of all electrical phenomena is that like charges repel and opposite charges attract An object that has unequal numbers of electrons and protons is electrically charged .
4. Conservation of Charge The principle that electrons are neither created nor destroyed but are simply transferred from one material to another is known as conservation of charge . When electrons are transferred from the fur to the rod, the rod becomes negatively charged.
5. Coulomb’s Law For charged particles, the force between the charges varies directly as the product of the charges and inversely as the square of the distance between them . 1 C (coulomb) is the charge of 6.24 billion billion electrons k = 9.00 * 10 9 Nm 2 /C 2
6. q1 and q2 are charges, measured in [C] k = proportionality const = 9.00 * 10 9 Nm 2 /C 2 d = distance between the charges [m]
7. Example: Consider two small charged objects, one with a charge of 5 C and the other of unknown charge. When they are separated by a distance of 1.2 m, each exerts a force of 2.8 N on the other. What is the charge of the second object? F = k * q1 * q2 d 2 2.8 =(9*10 9) * 5 * q2 (1.2) 2 q 2 = 2.8 * (1.2) 2 (9*10 9) * 5
8. Conductors and Insulators Materials through which electric charge can flow are called conductors Metals are good conductors In insulators , electrons are tightly bound and remain with a particular atom (they are not free to wander about) Rubber and glass are good insulators and poor conductors of electricity Semiconductors are materials that can be made to behave sometimes as insulators and sometimes as conductors. Atoms in a semiconductor hold their electrons until given small energy boosts.
9. Plasmas Plasmas are good conductors Plasma – the 4 th state of matter (not a solid, liquid or a gas!) Contains ions or free electrons Stars and neon signs are both Plasmas
10. Charging by Friction and Contact Electrons transferred by friction : We can stroke a cat’s fur and hear the crackle of sparks that are produced Comb our hair in front of a mirror in a dark room and see as well as hear the sparks of electricity Scuff our shoes across a rug and feel the tingle as we reach for the doorknob Electrons transferred by contact : A charged rod is placed in contact with a neutral object, some charge will transfer to the neutral object
11. Charging by Induction Induction – charging of an object without direct contact If a charged object is brought near a conducting surface, even without physical contact, electrons will move in the conducting surface
12. Grounding When we allow charges to move off (or onto) a conductor by touching it, it is common to say that we are grounding it When we touch the metal surface with a finger, charges that repel each other have a conducting path to a practically infinite reservoir for electric charge—the ground.