Understanding Biological Propagation: Genotype and Phenotype.

Understanding Biological Propagation: Genotype and Phenotype.

This article introduces the general terminology of biological propagation, with a focus on the relationship between genotype and phenotype. It explains the genetic make-up of an organism and how it determines its external appearance.

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About Understanding Biological Propagation: Genotype and Phenotype.

PowerPoint presentation about 'Understanding Biological Propagation: Genotype and Phenotype.'. This presentation describes the topic on This article introduces the general terminology of biological propagation, with a focus on the relationship between genotype and phenotype. It explains the genetic make-up of an organism and how it determines its external appearance.. The key topics included in this slideshow are genotype, phenotype, genetics, biological propagation, organism,. Download this presentation absolutely free.

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1. Chap 2. Biology of Propagation 1. General Terminology a. Genotype: the genetic make-up of an organism b. Phenotype: the external appearance of an organism (usually the outcome of interaction between a genotype and environment) c. Ploidy: Variation in the genomic number (x) of chromosomes x = genomic number of chromosomes n = gametic number of chromosomes 2n = wholeness n = halfness

2. Variation in Euploidy (for Organisms with x=12) Ploidy No. Chromosomes Somatic Gametic ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Diploid 2x=24 2n=24 n=12 Tetraploid 4x=48 2n=48 n=24 Hexaploid 6x=72 2n=72 n=36 Octoploid 8x=96 2n=96 n=48 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Haploid 1x=12 2n=12 n= 6 (?) Triploid 3x=36 2n=36 n=18 (?) Pentaploid 5x=60 2n=60 n=30 (?) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Seedless watermelons are triploids

3. Reproductive Biology Cell Division Somatic cell division (Mitosis) Reproductive cell division (Meiosis) Flowering and Anthesis Megagametogenesis (EMC to Egg Cells) Microgametogenesis (PMC to Pollen Grains) Pollination and Fertilization Pollen germination on stigma Pollen tube growth through style tissue Double fertilization

4. Mitosis - Somatic Cell Division - Ends up with same number of chromosomes in divided cells - Divided cells are genetically identical to maternal cells 2N --------- 2 N + 2N

5. Meiosis Reproductive cell division Undergoes 2 separate divisions Forms gametes Divided cells have a half of the chromosome numbers Ends up with genetic re- assortment by chromosomal translocation (cross-over) 2N --- --- N + N + N + N

6. An Example of Meiosis

7. Fertility in Polyploid (Euploidy) Plants Ploidy Somatic Gametic Fertility Monoploid 2n=1x n = ? Very low Diploid 2n=2x n = x High Triploid 2n=3x n = ? Very low Tetraploid 2n=4x n = 2x Variable Pentaploid 2n=5x n = ? Variable Hexaploid 2n=6x n = 3x Variable Heptaploid 2n=7x n = ? Variable Octoploid 2n=8x n = 4x Variable Nonaploid 2n=9x n = ? Variable Decaploid 2n=10x n = 5x Variable

8. Induction of Polyploidy Use Colchicine

9. Polyploidization Use of Cholchicine to induce polyploids Colchicine interferes with spindle fiber function during metaphase of meiosis

10. Production of Seedless Watermelon www.parkseed.com

11. Example of Ploidy Variation Chromosome Number Species Ploidy Somatic (2n) Gametic (n) Genomic (x) Spinach 2x 12 6 6 Corn 2x 20 10 10 Potato 4x 48 24 12 Strawberry 8x 56 28 7

12. Polyploidy Terminology (continued) Euploidy Variation between chromosome sets Aneuploidy Variation within a chromosome set Autoploidy Multiplication of the complete set of genomes of a species Alloploidy Polyploid containing genetically different sets of chromosomes derived from 2 or more species

13. Aneuploidy Va riation within a chromosome set Aneuploidy Somatic chromosome number Examples Trisomic 2n + 1 (extra) 11 22 33 44 55 66 777 Monosomic 2n - 1 (deficient) 11 22 3_ 44 55 66 77 Double-trisomic 2n + 1 + 1 (2 extra) 11 22 33 44 555 66 777 4 of o ne chromosome 2n + 2 (2 extra) 11 22 33 44 5555 66 77 A diploid plant ( 2n=2x=14 ) would contain the following chromosome numbers depending on aneuploidy conditions:

14. Pollen Tetrad and Microgametophyte - One tube nucleus - Two sperm nuclei

15. Megagametophyte 1 egg nucleus 2 polar nuclei 3 antipodal nuclei 2 synergids

16. Pollination and Fertilization, Angiosperms

17. Double Fertilization A process of fertilization in which one male gamete (sperm nucleus, n ) unites the egg nucleus ( n ) to form embryo (zygote, 2n ) and the other sperm nucleus ( n ) unites polar nuclei ( 2n ) to form endosperm ( 3n )

18. 1. General Terminology (continued) a. Homozygous - Having like alleles at corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes b. Heterozygous - Having unlike alleles at one or more corresponding loci on homologous c. Meiosis - Reproductive cell division ( Reduction Division ) - Chromosome number is reduced to one half - Results in formation of gametes ( pollen, egg cells ) - Allows genetic recombination d. Mitosis - Somatic cell division - Chromosome number same in daughter cells - Results in somatic tissues genetically identical - Allows clonal duplication

19. Fruit Flesh Color and Skin Texture Inheritance - Peach

21. Inheritance of Flower Color and Color Pattern Salpiglossis sinuata RR or Rr Red flower color rr Yellow flower color DD or Dd Solid color pattern dd Dilute color pattern

22. Gene Symbols RR DD or R_R_ (red, solid) RR dd or R_ dd (red, dilute) rr DD or rrD_ (yellow, solid) rr dd (yellow, dilute)

23. P 1 P 2 x Dilute Red (RRdd) Solid yellow (rrDD) Solid Red (RrDd) F 1 Solid red (R-D-) 9 Dilute red (R-dd) 3 Solid yellow (rrD-) 3 Dilute yellow (rrdd) 1 F 2

24. 2. Nomenclature Based on ICBN (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) a. Botanical Classification Family-Genus-Species-Variety-Form-Individual -Subspecies - Clines - continuous variation - Ecotypes - discontinuous variation b. Cultivated Plants Genus, species, cultivar Cultivar = Cultivated variety (cv.) Cultigen = Cultivated variety that has been naturalized Examples: Syringa vulgaris cv. Mont Blanc Syringa vulgaris Mont Blanc

25. 3. Kinds of Cultivars a. Line- Self pollinated seed-propagated cultivar (homozygous) - Inbred lines - Synthetic lines (composite lines) b. Hybrids ( sexual ) F-1 hybrid- first generation progeny from a cross between 2 inbred lines (single cross) c. F-2 Cultivars ( sexual ) Cultivars made up of self-pollination of an F-1

26. 3. Kinds of Cultivars (continued) d. Open Pollinated Cultivar (sexual) - Cultivar made up of seeds formed by open pollination - Can be mixtures of hybrids, selfs) - Inbred lines - Synthetic lines (composite lines) e. Clonal Cultivars (asexual) Clone - Plant propagated by asexual means Asexual propagation- cuttings, tubers, bulbs, grafts, rhizomes, cormels, stolon f. Apomictic Seeds (asexual) Seed formed from maternal (ovule) tissues

27. 4. Requirements for New Cultivar a. Distinctive- Morphologically and physiologically different characteristics b . Uniform- Homogeneity ( Variation should be minimal) Homogeneous (but, can be heterozygous as in F1) Homozygous (no segregation) c. Stable- A reasonable degree of reliability Reproducible performance d. Commercial - Must have agronomic or horticultural value