Private Pilot Ground School: Crew Resource Management, Physiology, and Emergencies
This course covers essential topics in aviation including physiology, emergencies, and crew resource management. Students will explore PTS hypoxia, hyperventilation, various effects on health, scuba diving, recognizing and handling emergencies, and common causes of emergencies. Additional reading can be done in the library with Basic Flight Physiology by Richard O Reinhart M.D.
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About Private Pilot Ground School: Crew Resource Management, Physiology, and Emergencies
PowerPoint presentation about 'Private Pilot Ground School: Crew Resource Management, Physiology, and Emergencies'. This presentation describes the topic on This course covers essential topics in aviation including physiology, emergencies, and crew resource management. Students will explore PTS hypoxia, hyperventilation, various effects on health, scuba diving, recognizing and handling emergencies, and common causes of emergencies. Additional reading can be done in the library with Basic Flight Physiology by Richard O Reinhart M.D.. The key topics included in this slideshow are Aviation, Crew Resource Management, Physiology, Emergencies, Hypoxia, Hyperventilation, Scuba Diving, Safety, Pilots, PTS,. Download this presentation absolutely free.
1. Private Pilot Ground School CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, PHYSIOLOGY AND EMERGENCIES
2. HOMEWORK ASA 5-20 to 5-27 PHAK Chapter 16 AIM CHAPTER 8 Additional reading can be done in library Basic Flight Physiology by Richard O. Reinhart, M.D. http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafe tybrochures/
3. CONTENT PTS HYPOXIA HYPERVENTILATION VARIOS EFFECTS ON HEALTH SCUBA DIVING RECOGNIZING AND HANDLING EMERGENCIES COMMON CAUSE OF EMERGENCIES CREW RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REVIEW
4. PTS TASK: AEROMEDICAL FACTORS The symptoms, causes effects, and corrective actions of at least three of the following HYPOXIA HYPERVENTILATION MIDDLE EAR AND SINUS PROBLEMS SPATIAL DISORIENTATION MOTION SICKNESS CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING STRESS AND FATIGUE DEHYDRATION EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, DRUGS, AND OVER-THE- COUNTER MEDICATIONS THE EFFECTS OF EXCESSES NITROGEN DURING SCUBA DIVES UPON A PILOT OR PASSENGER IN FLIGHTS
5. YOUTUBE Hypoxia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W TNX6mr753w (4:02) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_I qWal_EmBg (4:35 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_h lnLIwuSEw&list=SPCCF3D4E62537 914E&index=61&feature=plpp_video (14 min)
6. HYPOXIA Oxygen in the ambient air must reach the cell and does so because of gas laws, the lungs, circulatory system, blood, and hemoglobin. An interruption of that process from a single problem or combination will result in Hypoxia. State of oxygen deficiency in the body sufficient to impair functions of the brain and other organs.
7. CLASSIFICATION OF HYPOXIA HYPOXIC (altitude) hypoxia Hypemic (anemic) hypoxia (carbon monoxide poisoning) Stagnant hypoxia (pulling positive Gs, long periods of pressure breathing at extreme cabin altitudes) Histotoxic Hypoxia (cell expecting and needing oxygen is abnormal and unable to take up oxygen that is present due to a toxin)
8. HYPOXIC HYPOXIA Lack of available oxygen, as experienced when flying at altitude in an unpressurized cabin. It means there arent enough oxygen molecules available to breathe with sufficient pressure, as we ascend. The number of molecules of oxygen decrease, despite the fact that the percentage remains the same. Lower pressure gradient in the lungs for diffusion to take place across the alveolar membrane. The partial pressure of oxygen as it is presented to the blood in the lungs is too low to effectively carry and transfer enough oxygen to the cells of the tissues.
9. Hypoxia lack of oxygen to the body Oxygen partial pressure Different for different people 5000 feet at night 12,000 during daytime 12,500 to 14,000 above 15,000 oxygen rules
10. Hypoxia Symptoms (pg 61): peripheral vision starts to grey out cyanosis Feeling of euphoria Tingling in the extremities Can be similar to hyperventilation (review chart) Effects: Loss of judgment Unconsciousness Corrective Actions: Go on Oxygen Descend to a lower altitude
11. Hypoxia Time of Useful Consciousness 18,000 20 30 Minutes 22,000 10 Minutes 25,000 3 5 Minutes 28,000 2 3 Minutes 30,000 1 2 Minutes 35,000 30 Seconds 40,000 9 12 Seconds 43,000 9 12 Seconds 50,000 9 12 Seconds
12. Oxygen Equipment Oxygen Equipment Use in General Aviation Operations (PDF, 243 KB) PHAK page 6-34 to 6-37 91.211
13. Hyperventilation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= ygGhy0OjYH0 (Time 6:46) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= spVOji_El30
14. Hyperventilation Abnormal increase in the volume of air breathed in and out of the lungs which causes the body to blow off excessive carbon dioxide Symptoms: Similar to hypoxia (review specific symptoms and simularities) Effects: Similar to hypoxia Corrective Actions: Set O2 system to deliver 100% O2 just in case it is hypoxia Slow the breathing rate Do the checklist out loud Sing the Star Spangle Banner AIM suggestions chapter 8
15. Ear and Sinus Block This happens when the Eustachian tube gets blocked and the pressure will not equalize Symptoms: Very painful in ears or behind the eyes Plugged ears or sinuses Effects: incapacitation in some circumstances Eardrum can rupture Corrective Actions: Use the Valsalva Maneuver Descend very slowly or climb Menthol inhaler Menthol cough drops will sometimes work
16. Spatial Disorientation This happens when your kinesthetic inputs disagree with what is really happening with the plane The fluid in your semi-circular canals gets to sloshing around Pay attention and believe your flight instruments http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VgnvGiJrN74 &list=SPCCF3D4E62537914E&index=13&featur e=plpp_video (time 14 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tLmpGca6QD Y&list=SPCCF3D4E62537914E&index=68&feat ure=plpp_video (31 min)
17. Spatial Disorientation Spatial Disorientation: Visual Illusions (PDF, 825 KB) Spatial Disorientation: Why You Shouldn't Fly By the Seat of Your Pants (PDF, 347 KB)
18. Motion Sickness http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= Mfc19d- bHuQ&list=SPCCF3D4E6253791 4E&index=65&feature=plpp_vide o (7 minutes)
19. Carbon Monoxide poisoning CO attaches to the hemoglobin more readily than O2. Hemoglobin accepts carbon monoxide 250 times more than oxygen. Form of hypemic (anemic) hypoxia. The bloods ability to carry oxygen molecules. Takes a Hyperbolic chamber to force the O2 back into the blood Symptoms: Similar to hypoxia except finger nail beds and lips will turn red Effects: Similar to hypoxia except add death to that list Corrective Actions: Close all heat valves Set O2 system to deliver 100% O2 just in case it is hypoxia Open window try to ventilate the cabin Descend to a lower altitude
20. Self Imposed Stress and Aviation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= lEew4CPQUHI&list=SPCCF3D4E 62537914E&index=67&feature=pl pp_video (17 min)
21. Dehydration PIF last page in section V Medical or page 7 Review before oral exam the PIF and the entire Medical section Avoid coffee/soda/alcohol/teas or diurectics before a flight Low humidity in a pressurized aircraft Minimal sweating lose 3-4 pints of water per day more in dry conditions Similar symptoms to heat stress headache, dizziness, and especially fatigues. Hours of increased dehydration is one reason kidney stones are relatively common in pilots.
22. How Do We Prevent Dehydration When We Fly?? The in-flight air is drier than any of the world's deserts. Typically, relative humidity is 20-25% in the Sahara or Arabian deserts, while optimum comfort is around 50%. "In-flight cabin humidities gradually fall on long-distance, high-altitude flights to well below 10%, in many cases approaching 1%." (Air Conditioning Tests, Boeing Report No. T6-4453-B747SP, 1976). In-flight dryness can create thirst, scratchy eyes, bloodshot eyes, dry skin (even wrinkles), and backed-up plumbing. Yipes!
23. Steps To Take To Offset In-flight Dehydration: Drink at least 8 ounces of water every hour en route; Carry your own bottle of drinking water when you fly, to sip on when service is not available (right after takeoff or when the bar carts close prior to landing); En route, drink bottled or canned water rather than the tap water. There are presently no standards for commercial aircraft water tanks, for cleanliness, treatment procedures, nor water quality in cities around the world where commercial jets refill; Avoid alcohol and coffee; they have diuretic properties, i.e., they squeeze water out of our cells;
24. Spritz your face often; use an empty perfume atomizer and refill it from your own drinking water or buy a water spritzer (used for ironing); Apply eye cream below eyes and oil inside nostrils (almond oil smells nice; jojoba oil is also good and a little thicker; olive oil is excellent, too, and definitely in the flow on flights to Rome; For humidified breathing air, cover your nose with a water-saturated cotton handkerchief. (Fold on the diagonal and wrap ends around your ears.) You might feel self-conscious, thinking you look like a masked bandit. Are your seatmates snickering? You'll see, on the next flight there will be more masked bandits. One day, you'll walk on an airplane and everyone will have a hankie over his/her nose. Will this inspire the airlines to humidify their jets? Let's hope so; After landing, submerge and soak in the water as soon as possible -- the ocean, a hot tub, a pool, a bath, whatever is available that you enjoy. Immerse entirely, even and especially your head. Bathing when dehydrated helps to replenish moisture right through the pores. Bathing also relaxes the nervous system. Basically, there's no way to avoid the fact that your body will become dehydrated to some degree as a result of flying long distances in near-zero humidity in commercial jet cabins. We need to be mindful of our water intake en route, and also remember to drink plenty of pure water for several days after landing. Without adequate water intake both health and inspiration quickly deteriorate. That's why I do whatever it takes.
25. Alcohol and Drugs FARs 61.15, 61.16, 91.17, AIM section 8 http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pi lotsafetybrochures/media/alcohol.p df
26. SCUBA Diving Decompression sickness The bends 12 hours for flights below 8,000 and no dives requiring a controlled ascent 24 hours for flights above 8,000 or dives requiring a controlled ascent Corrective actions
27. Night Vision 105 Your eye is made up of Rods and Cones Rods are light receptive nerves that sense peripheral vision and shades of grey Cones are light receptive nerves that sense color and clear visual acuity It takes 30-45 minutes for a chemical called visual purple or rhodopsin to build. After 10 minutes of darkness your eyes are 10,000 times more sensitive After 30 minutes they are 100,000 time more sensitive
28. YOUTUBE Acceleration video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PpTnRZAy3KY&list=SPCC F3D4E62537914E&index=57&feature=plpp_video (22 min) Heat Exposure http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3pzgay8fIzg&list=SPCCF3 D4E62537914E&index=62&feature=plpp_video (15 min) Noise and Vibration http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=64MCJN04j- Q&list=SPCCF3D4E62537914E&index=64&feature=plpp_vide o (13 min) Physics of the atmosphere http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_vs50lHTdI&list=SPCCF3 D4E62537914E&index=66&feature=plpp_video (10 min)
29. Trapped Gas http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wGyLFR8- Pbo&list=SPCCF3D4E62537914E&index=69&feature=plpp_video (9 min) Aviation Oxygen Equipment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jba8AcEah1Q&list=SPCCF3D4E62537914E&index =70&feature=plpp_video (16 min) Ups and Downs of Aircraft Pressurization http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ps3RE7VVGk4&list=SPCCF3D4E62537914E&inde x=71&feature=plpp_video (11-12 min) Vision in Flight http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9jXyRBZE3JA&list=SPCCF3D4E62537914E&inde x=72&feature=plpp_video (15 min) To see or not to see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ujxL5QOArMg&list=SPCCF3D4E62537914E&inde x=92&feature=plpp_video (16 min)
30. Fitness For Flight IM SAFE I Illness M Medication S Stress A Alcohol F Fatigue E Emotion
31. Emergencies Compound emergencies are emergencies in quick succession Verify information with your instrumentation Follow the manufacturers recommended emergency checklist
32. Emergencies When you know it is out of the ordinary it is probably time to take action Always choose the course of action that will give you the most options When all else fails undo what you just did
33. Emergencies The emergency frequency is 121.5 ELT's transmit on this frequency for up to 48 hours after a 5 to 7 g shock Wear what you would like to spend the night in
34. Private Pilot Ground School Aeronautical Decision Making
35. ADM Aeronautical Decision Making When a decision has to be made Use a systematic approach Avoid Dangerous tendencies
36. 3 Examples of Dangerous tendencies or behavioral problems are: 1. Scud Running 2. VFR into IFR conditions 3. Neglecting the Checklist
37. SELF ASSESSMENT Limit your risk exposure by determining which hazardous attitude you lean toward Lets take a closer look at the 5 hazardous attitudes ARMII These will be on your private oral!
38. ANTI-AUTHORITY Dont tell me Rules are for squirrels ATC clearances FARs
39. ANTI-AUTHORITY ANTIDOTE Follow the rules. They are usually right.
40. RESIGNATION What's the use? This is where the person just gives up Oh well They may believe that luck is their co pilot The situation overwhelms them and by failing to act have condemned themselves
41. RESIGNATION ANTIDOTE Im not helpless. I can make a difference.
42. MACHO I can do it Im hot poo poo These pilots think they have superior skill Cocky, know it all types Women are just as susceptible as men
43. MACHO ANTIDOTE Taking chances is foolish
44. IMPULSIVITY Do something quickly Rush into a course of action without thinking first The need to do something - anything It overwhelms good ADM principles
45. IMPULSIVITY ANTIDOTE Slow down, think before you act or speak.
46. INVULNERABILITY It wont happen to me Accidents are what happen to others - not me These types feel they will never be involved in a mishap
47. INVULNERABILITY ANTIDOTE It can happen to me
48. WHAT TO DO? Most decision making occurs on the ground before the flight IMSAFE checklist Do you have stressors that may affect ADM? If you do, you are starting off with a handicap
49. WHAT TO DO? Usually accidents occur after a series of bad judgement calls add up The domino effect takes over Read accident reports In many of the accidents you can see the accident coming Practice good risk management techniques
50. WHAT TO DO? Be pessimistic, look for the other shoe to drop Remember Aviate, Navigate, Communicate Try undoing the last thing you did Always select the course of action that gives you the most options Dont box yourself into a corner Always fly inside your envelope Dont get outside your comfort level
51. WHAT TO DO? Every pilot has a little voice Listen to it! The stall horn listen to it! It is telling you something
52. WHO IS IN COMMAND? You alone are responsible to determine if you are fit to fly Human error is the one common factor that affects most preventable accidents A pilot is usually aware of the hazards when making bad decisions
53. COCKPIT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CRM) The application of team management concepts in the cockpit. Effective use of all resources, including: Aircraft dispatchers Flight Attendants Maintenance Personnel Air Traffic Controllers
54. COCKPIT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (CRM) NASA research indicates 60 80 percent of accidents involve human factors Some share certain characteristics: Poor group decision making Ineffective communication Inadequate leadership Poor task management Poor resource management
55. COMMUICATIONS PROCESSES AND DECISION BEHAVIOR CLUSTER Most CRM training is in the form of clusters Briefings Id problems, safety issues, division of labor, team concept Inquiry, Advocacy, Assertion A crewmember promoting a course of action they feel is the best solution Crew Self Critique Regarding Decisions and Actions Crewmembers effectiveness including the process and the people involved Communications, Decisions Free and open comm. Info is given at the appropriate time and decisions are questioned routinely
56. TEAM BUILDING AND MAINTENANCE CLUSTER Leadership - Followership, Concern for Tasks Use all available resources, balance respect and assertiveness Interpersonal Relationships Group Climate Calm head under stressful situations, adaptability to other personalities, tone in the cockpit is friendly, relaxed
57. WORKLOAD MANAGEMENT AND SITUATIONAL AWARENESS CLUSTER Preparation Planning Vigilance Active monitoring of instruments, comm., wx, stay away from tunnel vision, be ahead of the curve Workload Distributed Distractions Avoided Speak up when overloaded, maximize task effectiveness, social problems dont affect duties
58. REVIEW Write out the required instruments and equipment for day and night flight IMSAFE 5 hazardous attitudes How to recover from a spin Required personal and aircraft documents